Chapter 10 Chemistry

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Chapter 10 Chemistry
2014-05-18 22:16:52
Chem Chemistry
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  1. Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
    Gases consists of large numbers of tiny particles that are far apart relative to their size.

    Collision between gas particles and container walls are elastic collisions.

    Gas particles are in continuous, random motion. They therefore posses kinetic energy, which is energy of motion. 

    There are no forces of attraction between gas particles.

    The temperature of a gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the particle of gas.
  2. Elastic Collision
    An elastic collision is one in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy.
  3. Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    Is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion.
  4. Ideal Gas
    An ideal gas is a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.
  5. Gases: Expansion
    Gases do not have a definite shape or volume, so therefore they completely fill any container in which they are enclosed, and take its shape.
  6. Gases: Fluidity
    Because attractive forces between gas particles are so small, gas particles glide easily past  one another. This ability to flow causes gases to behave as liquids do. Because liquids and gases flow, they are both refered to as fluids.
  7. Gases: Low Density
    Gases have low densities because of how far apart the particles are.
  8. Gases: Compressibilty
    During compression, the gas particles, which are initally very far apart, are crowded close together.
  9. Diffusion
    Spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion is called diffusion.
  10. Effusion
    Is a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening.
  11. Real Gas
    Is a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.
  12. Noble Gases
    Esentially show ideal gas behavior.
  13. Least Common State of Matter
  14. Liquid
    A form of matter that has definte volume but not definite shape.
  15. Fluid
    A substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container.
  16. Liquids: Relatively High Density
    This high density is a result of the closeness of the particles in a liquid.
  17. Liquids: Relative Incompressibilty
    Liquids are much less compressible than gases because liquid particles are closer together.
  18. Liquids: Ability to Diffuse
    Constant random motion of liquids allow it to diffuse.
  19. Surface Tension
    A force thar tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size.
  20. Property Common to all Liquids
    Surface Tension
  21. Capillary Action
    The attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid.
  22. Vaporization
    The process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas is vaporization.
  23. Evaportaion
    Is the process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and enter a gas state.
  24. Boling
    Is the changing of a liquid to bubbles of vapor that appear throughout a liquid.
  25. Freezing
    The physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of energy as a heat is called freezing or solidification.
  26. Crystalline Solids
    Consists of crystals. A crystal is a substance in which the particles are arranged in an orderly, geometric, repeating pattern.
  27. Amorphous Solid
    Noncrystalline solids including glass, and plastics, are called amorphous solids. An amorphous solid is one in which the particles are arranged randomly.
  28. Solids: Definite Shape and Volume
    Solids have definite shape and volume.
  29. Melting
    Is the physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of energy as heat.
  30. Melting Point
    The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.
  31. Supercooled Liquids
    Are substances that retain certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which they appear to be solid.
  32. Solids: High Density & Incompressibilty
    Substances are most dense in the solid state. Solids are less compressible than liquids.
  33. Solids: Low rate of Diffusion
    Diffusion occurs in solids just at a really slow rate.
  34. Unit Cell
    The smallest portion of a crystalline lattice that shows the three dimensional pattern of the entire lattice is called a unit cell.
  35. Crystal Structure
    The total three dimensional arrangement of particles.
  36. Four Types of Crystals
    Ionic Crystals, Covalent Crystals, Metallic Crystals, & Covalent Molecular Crystals.
  37. Amorphous Solid
    Do not have a particular shape; glasses & plastics.
  38. Phase
    Any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties.
  39. Condensation
    Is the process by which a gas changes to a liquid.
  40. Equilibrium
    Is a dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system.
  41. Volatile Liquids
    Are liquids that evaporate readily.
  42. Boiling
    Is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as its surface.
  43. Boiling Point
    Of a liquid is the temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmopheric pressure.
  44. Molar Enthaply of Vaporization
    The amount of energy as heat that is needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at the liquid's boiling point at constant pressure is called the liquid's molar enthaply of vaporization.
  45. Freezing
    The physical change of a liquid to a solid is called freezing.
  46. Sublimation
    The change of state from a solid to a gas.
  47. Deposition
    The change of state from gas to solid.
  48. Phase Diagram
    Is a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist.
  49. Triple Point
    Of a substance indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of a substance coexist at equilibrium.
  50. Critical Point
    Of a substance indicates the critical pressure and temperature.
  51. Critical Temperature
    Is the temperature above which the substance cannot exist as a liquid.
  52. Critical Pressure
    Is the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as aliquid at the critical temperature.