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What is Nautilus?
Also known as Gnome files or the file manager of the Ubuntu operating system.
Which desktop environment is used as default by Ubuntu 12.04 lts?
KDE (K Desktop Environment)
Gnome with Unity integrated on top.
By default does Ubuntu 12.04 lts Nautilus automatically mount media such as user-visible hard disks and removable media on start-up and media insertion.?
What does lts in Ubuntu lts stand for and mean?
Long term support. It means that a new desktop and server are released every 6 months allowing users to always have the latest applications available by the open source community.
In ubuntu 12.04 lts, by default storage devices that are plugged into the system mount automatically in which folder?
To enable or disable automount in Ubuntu 12.04 lts open a terminal and type ______ followed by the [Enter] key.
cat < input.txt
The dconf-editor comes from what package?
What is dconf-editor?
A configuration editor program. One example of its use is configuring automount in Ubuntu lts 12.04 by browsing to the org.gnome.desktop.media-handling and unchecking the automount and automount-open key.
How can we mount disks graphically in Ubuntu 12.04 lts if automounting is disabled?
- Option 1:
- Start dash
- type in "Disk"
- Click on "Disk Utility"
- Use it to mount appropriate disk
- Option 2:
- Click on the home folder
- Click on the button corresponding to the media under Devices.
- Note that some storage media cannot be mounted this way. For example, a dvd disc.
How can we mount disks through terminal in Ubuntu 12.04 lts?
- Use the program mount.
- For FAT: sudo mount -t vfat /dev/sdb1 /media/external -o uid=1000,gid=1000,utf8,dmask=027,fmask=137
For NTFS (need ntfs-3g driver): sudo mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sdb1 /media/external
What is the ntfs-3g driver for?
Software that enables read-write support for the Microsoft Windows NTFS file system. Ubuntu 12.01 lts has this driver by default because the Ubuntu standard package depends on it.
If a drive or device was manually mounted can one unmount that device by right clicking on the device icon button on the launcher bar and selecting unmount?
IDK :/ Look more into this. No. While the button disappears off of the launcher bar the device is still accessible. Just open the file manager or home button and we can see the device mounted.
When a device is not auto-mounted where can it be seen?
In the /dev/ directory. For example /dev/sdb1. Or we can see it in the file manager or by hitting the Home Folder button.
Can we unmount a device from either its device location and mount location?
What is a package manager or package management system?
A package management system is a collection of tools that provides a consistent method of installing, upgrading and removing software on your system. Linux distributions, including openSUSE, typically consist of thousands of distinct software packages.
Software are distributed through Packages that are linked to metadata which contain additionnal information such as a description of the software purpose and a list of dependencies necessary for the software to run properly. They are provided by repositories, either local media (CD, DVD or hard drive) or online repositories. Upon installation, metadata is stored in a local package database which is used to retrieve software packages.
What is a repository?
A repository is a storage location that holds collection of files that contain the source code, readme, bug reports, etc to a software package. Software packages may be retrieved and installed on a computer from this repository.
On Ubuntu 12.04 lts what directory does the regular user (non-root) have permission rights for writing?
- Where username is the name created by the user during installation.
What is the command to check whether we have ntfs-3g?
dpkg -l ntfs*
When installing ntfsprogs will ntfs-3g be uninstalled?
Yes. The two packages are in conflict (in Oneiric).
Why is ntfs-3g driver better than ntfsprogs driver?
Currently ntfs-3g provides the functionality of ntfsprogs so ntfsprogs is not needed.
Why is non-volatile memory partitioned?
By dividing the hard disk in partitions, data can be grouped and separated. When an accident occurs, only the data in the partition that got the hit will be damaged, while the data on the other partitions will most likely survive.
How can we see the information about partitions and mount points?
Information about the partitions and their mount points can be displayed using the df command (which stands for disk full or disk free).
What is a mount point?
A point in the directory tree that a device or external storage device is attached. The attached structures can have any other type of file system (FAT32, NTFS, vFAT). Connecting a file system to a mount point goes along with idea of a virtual file system, or a consistent way the user can access different file system types in the same way.
What is a virtual file system?
an abstraction layer on top of a more concrete file system. The purpose of a VFS is to allow client applications to access different types of concrete file systems in a uniform way. A VFS can, for example, be used to access local and network storage devices transparently without the client application noticing the difference. It can be used to bridge the differences in Windows, Mac OS and Unix filesystems, so that applications can access files on local file systems of those types without having to know what type of file system they are accessing.
The /etc/fstab file describes what?
All the partitions that are mounted at system startup.
By default are all devices mounted during system startup?
No. Some partitions are not mounted by default, for instance if they are not constantly connected to the system, such like the storage used by your digital camera.
Does one need to be a system administrator to attach/detach devices from the system?
False. This means the filesystems of other devices are user-mountable.
What type of information is the df command limited to displaying?
The df command only displays information about active non-swap partitions. These can include partitions from other networked systems, like in the example below where the home directories are mounted from a file server on the network, a situation often encountered in corporate environments.
By convention what content does the /bin directory hold?
Common programs, shared by the system, the system administrator and the users. For example, the file explorer.
By convention what content does the /boot directory hold?
The startup files and the kernel, vmlinuz. In some recent distributions also grub data. Grub is the GRand Unified Boot loader and is an attempt to get rid of the many different boot-loaders we know today.
How could one find out what version of GRUB they have?
- 1. Boot up the computer and when the grub menu comes up the version may be at the top.
- 2. At a terminal type in command: grub-install --version
By convention what content does the /dev directory hold?
Contains references to all the CPU peripheral hardware, which are represented as files with special properties. One example, could be a USB thumb drive.
Are pendrives, flash drives, and thumb drives all the same thing?
What is a flash drive?
A flash drive is a small, ultra-portable storage device which, unlike an optical drive or a traditional hard drive, has no moving parts.
Flash drives connect to computers and other devices via a built-in USB Type-A plug, making a flash drive a kind of combination USB device and cable.
Storage capacity ranges from 8GiB to 1TB.
By convention what content does the /etc directory hold?
Most important system configuration files are in /etc, this directory contains data similar to those in the Control Panel in Windows.
By convention what content does the /home directory hold?
Home directories of the common users.
What is the difference between a user's home folder and the directory /home?
The directory /home may contain various user account folders, however a user's home folder is the folder pertaining to all that users files and is contained within /home.
By convention what content does the /lib directory hold?
Library files, includes files for all kinds of programs needed by the system and the users.
By convention what content does the folder /lost+found hold?
Every partition has a lost+found in its upper directory. Files that were saved during failures are here.
By convention what content does the /mnt directory hold?
Standard mount point directory for external file systems, e.g. a CD-ROM or a digital camera. Mount points or directories may be created here for external devices.
By convention what does the /net directory hold?
Standard mount point for entire remote file systems
By convention what content does the /opt directory hold?
Typically contains extra and third party software.
By convention what content does the /proc hold?
proc is a virtual file system containing information about system resources and is mounted at /proc. More information about the meaning of the files in proc is obtained by entering the command man proc in a terminal window. The file proc.txt discusses the virtual file system in detail.
By convention, what content does the /root directory hold?
The administrative user's home directory. Mind the difference between /, the root directory and /root, the home directory of the root user. One is for the directory structure of the linux file system and another is for a special user of the system.
By convention, what content does the /sbin directory hold?
Programs for use by the system and the system administrator not for common users.
By convention, what content does the /tmp directory hold?
Temporary space for use by the system, cleaned upon reboot, so don't use this for saving any work!
By convention, what content does the /usr directory hold?
Programs, libraries, documentation etc. for all user-related programs.
By convention, what content does the /var directory hold?
Storage for all variable files and temporary files created by users, such as log files, the mail queue, the print spooler area, space for temporary storage of files downloaded from the Internet, or to keep an image of a CD before burning it.
What is the Ubuntu Software Center used for?
It is a graphical package manager or software manager for adding, updating, removing software for an Ubuntu os.
What is Ubuntu One?
An application for cloud storage. At first, users get about 5GiB of free storage. They can sync across multiple devices on their computer.
What is the package or software ubuntu-restricted-extras for?
Ubuntu defaults to free and open software only. Many of the multimedia codecs needed to play software are proprietary. This software allows a user to be able to view or install proprietary software. Can be checked on the Ubuntu Software Center.
What is an inode?
In a file system, a file is represented by an inode, a kind of serial number containing information about the actual data that makes up the file: to whom this file belongs, and where is it located on the hard disk. Every partition has its own set of inodes; throughout a system with multiple partitions, files with the same inode number can exist.
What does each inode describe?
Each inode describes a data structure on the hard disk, storing the properties of a file, including the physical location of the file data. When a hard disk is initialized to accept data storage, usually during the initial system installation process or when adding extra disks to an existing system, a fixed number of inodes per partition is created. This number will be the maximum amount of files, of all types (including directories, special files, links etc.) that can exist at the same time on the partition. We typically count on having 1 inode per 2 to 8 kilobytes of storage.
At the time a new file is created, it gets a free inode. What information gets placed in the inode?
- Owner and group owner of the file.File type (regular, directory, ...)
- Permissions on the file Section 3.4.1
- Date and time of creation, last read and change.
- Date and time this information has been changed in the inode.
- Number of links to this file (see later in this chapter).
- File size
- An address defining the actual location of the file data.
What 2 things are not included in an inode?
file name and directory. These are stored in the special directory files. By comparing file names and inode numbers, the system can make up a tree-structure that the user understands. Users can display inode numbers using the -i option to ls. The inodes have their own separate space on the disk.
What 4 things could one do to speed up their Ubuntu?
What steps would we take to back up Ubuntu?
Why is it a bad idea to press the power button as opposed to selecting the shutdown option from the settings menu?
While Linux was not meant to be shut off without application of the proper procedures for halting the system, hitting the power button is equivalent to starting those procedures on newer systems. However, powering off an old system without going through the halting process might cause severe damage! If you want to be sure, always use the Shut down option when you log out from the graphical interface, or, when on the login screen (where you have to give your user name and password) look around for a shutdown button.
When should a user log in as root?
log in as root only to do set up and configuration that absolutely requires administrator privileges, such as adding users, installing software packages, and performing network and other system configuration. Once you are finished, immediately leave the special account and resume your work as a non-privileged user. Alternatively, some systems, like Ubuntu, force you to use sudo, so that you do not need direct access to the administrative account.
How can we disable the feature in the dash desktop feature apart of Unity?
The issue of canonical sending your search information to vendors such as amazon is included in Unity on Ubuntu versions after 12.04 lts. However, if one goes on the shopping lens, then canonical will send information on 12.04 lts. I wonder if this is only on the shopping lens?
How do we properly move an optical drive, hard drive, and a flash drive from the system?
- Unmount - hard drives (LaCie).
- Eject - optical drives (CD-ROM, floppy disc, tape, JAZ or ZIP disk).
- Safely Remove - USB drives (Pen, flash, thumb, sdcard, digital camera).
Should the umount program be used for devices that need to sync and power down to physically disconnect?
Assuming the user wants to physically disconnect then no.
Examples can include Flash Drives / Pen Drives / Thumb Drives / SD Card / Digital Camera and any other device that needs to sync before powering down.
A better command to use would be: eject.