PHRD5935 Pharm/Tox Lecture 9 - Intro to Toxicology

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daynuhmay
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274770
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PHRD5935 Pharm/Tox Lecture 9 - Intro to Toxicology
Updated:
2014-05-19 05:16:56
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Toxicology
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Toxicology
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  1. recall of dangerous/defective products that could cause serious health problems or death
    Class I
  2. recall of products that might cause a temporary health problem, or pose only a slight threat of a serious nature
    Class II
  3. recall for products that are unlikely to cause any adverse health rxn, but that violate FDA regulations
    Class III
  4. chemicals foreign to the body that can be used to treat a disease
    drug
  5. 5 types of undesired effects
    • 1) allergic rxns
    • 2) idiosyncratic rxns
    • 3) immediate & delayed tox
    • 4) reversible & irreversible tox
    • 5) local & systemic tox
  6. science of adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms
    toxicology
  7. 3 types of toxicology
    • 1) descriptive
    • 2) mechanistic
    • 3) regulatory
  8. toxicity tests that can be used to evaluate the risk of exposure of humans to a particular chemical
    descriptive toxicology
  9. attempts to determine how chemicals exert their deleterious effects on organisms
    mechanistic toxicology
  10. judges whether a drug has low enough risk to justify making it available to humans
    regulatory toxicology
  11. 4 things toxicity depends on
    • 1) dose
    • 2) type of substance
    • 3) freq of exposure
    • 4) organism in question
  12. major pathways by which toxic agents gain access to the body (4)
    • 1) GI (ingestion)
    • 2) lungs
    • 3) skin
    • 4) other parenteral
  13. when a drug affects a particular cell type bc of uptake, metabolism, or inherent properties of the cell
    selective toxicity
  14. 2 things rate of absorption depends on
    • 1) lipid solubility (log P)
    • 2) % ionization
  15. Phase I biotransformation
    drug -> oxygenated intermediate
  16. Phase II biotransformation
    oxygenated intermediate -> conjugated innocuous product
  17. organ(s) w/ high capacity for biotransformation
    liver
  18. organ(s) w/ medium capacity for biotransformation
    • lung
    • kidney
    • intestine
  19. organ(s) w/ low capacity for biotransformation
    • skin
    • testis
    • placenta
    • adrenals
  20. 5 major routes of excretion
    • 1) urine
    • 2) bile
    • 3) lungs
    • 4) secretion in GI tract
    • 5) secretion into body fluids

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