Logic 103 Exam 1

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Logic 103 Exam 1
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2009-12-12 21:40:54
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philosophy logic
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The complete exam 1 in flashcards.
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  1. T/F: An invalid deductive argument is always unsound.
    True
  2. T/F: In logic, the truth of the premises must be established before any other analysis can occur.
    False
  3. T/F: An argument with a false premise cannot be valid.
    False
  4. T/F: No valid deductive argument can be made any stronger by adding additional premises, no matter what the premises state.
    True
  5. T/F: If a passage does not contain a conclusion, it cannot be an argument.
    False
  6. T/F: ‘Extension’ refers to the collection of objects to which a term applies.
    True
  7. T/F: Ostensive definitions avoid some of the limitations of extensional definitions.
    False
  8. T/F: Directive discourse in language is used to express emotion.
    False
  9. T/F: Fallacies of accident arise because all generalizations have some exceptions.
    True
  10. T/F: Every circular argument commits the fallacy of begging the question.
    True
  11. T/F: False cause is one of the fallacies of relevance.
    False
  12. T/F: The fallacy of equivocation occurs when something is taken out of context and misconstrued.
    False
  13. T/F: Validity and soundness are properties of premises and conclusions.
    False
  14. T/F: Abduction, or inference to the best explanation, is a form of ampliative reasoning.
    True
  15. T/F: Inference to the best explanation is deductively invalid, and it is useless for science and philosophy.
    False
  16. In which of the following subjects is reasoning outside the concern of the logicians? A) ethics, B) politics, C) science and medicine, D) none of the above
    D) none of the above
  17. “Cigarette smoking should be banned in all public eating and drinking establishments because secondhand smoke has been shown to be detrimental to one’s health.” This is an example of: A) a hypothetical proposition, B) an argument, C) a disjunctive proposition, D) none of the above
    B) an argument
  18. “(1) The government should enact legislation permitting euthanasia. (2) Without this legislation people are denied their autonomy. (3) People have the right to die with dignity and ought to be able to choose to live or die.” What is the conclusion of this passage? A) 1, B) 2, C) 3, D) There is no stated conclusion
    A) 1 - “The government should enact legislation permitting euthanasia.”
  19. “Torture treats the victim as merely a means to an end. Therefore, it is immoral.” The unstated proposition in this argument is: A) Treating a person as merely a means to an end is immoral. B) The U.S. sanctions the use of torture. C) Torture is useful for getting information out of people. D) none of the above
    A) Treating a person as merely a means to an end is immoral.
  20. “(1) Workers are often exposed to contamination on the work premises and are not warned of the dangers of this exposure. (2) For instance, asbestos workers were not told for many years of the dangers of contracting asbestosis. (3) And farm workers are often misled about the dangers of insecticides and fertilizers. (4) Tougher legislation should be enacted in order to insure the safety of all workers.” Which sentence is the conclusion? A) 1, B) 2, C) 3, D) 4
    D) 4 - Tougher legislation should be enacted in order to insure the safety of all workers.”
  21. “(1) The prince greeted a small crowd of well-wishers outside his palace yesterday. (2) He pointed out several architectural features of the building that historians have found interesting. (3) Apparently, there are several aspects of the building that are not typical of the time it was built, and (4) the prince clearly enjoyed having the opportunity to share his knowledge with such an appreciative audience.” Which sentence presents the conclusion of the passage? A) 1, B) 2, C) 3, D) 4, E) There is no conclusion
    E) There is no conclusion
  22. “(1) I’ll tell you why the mayor decided to modify the city’s curbs for wheelchair users. (2) First, the city has a moral obligation to do so. (3) Second, since there are more voters in wheelchairs than ever before, they will be more likely to vote for the mayor in the next election if he makes life easier for them.” What is true of this passage? A) Sentences 2 and 3 support the truth of 1. B) Sentences 2 and 3 explain 1. C) Sentences 1, 2, and 3 deductively support an unstated conclusion. D) Sentence 1 explains 2 and 3.
    B) Sentences 2 and 3 explain 1.
  23. “(1) Skinner’s utopian society ought to be rejected. (2) The sort of society Skinner proposes in Walden Two is a non-competitive, lifeless society that lacks creativity and imagination. (3) It also lacks the conditions that make for festivity and fantasy, two significant human traits. (4) The type of society that Skinner proposes would turn people into robots.” Which sentence expresses the conclusion of the argument? A) 1, B) 2, C) 3, D) 4
    A) 1 – “Skinner’s utopian society ought to be rejected.”
  24. When your father says to you, “I am really sick of coming home to such a mess!” the best description of this sentence is: A) an exclamatory sentence used directively, B) an exclamatory sentence used expressively, C) a declarative sentence used directively, D) an imperative sentence used directively.
    A or B: an exclamatory sentence used directively, or an exclamatory sentence used expressively
  25. “Hey, Jim – you about done there?” When Jim’s carpool partner says this to him, it is an example of: A) an interrogative sentence used in ceremonial discourse, B) an exclamatory sentence used in directive discourse, C) an interrogative sentence used in directive discourse, D) an exclamatory sentence used in performative discourse
    C) an interrogative sentence used in directive discourse
  26. Which type of definition is found in the dictionary? A) precising, B) theoretical, C) lexical, D) stipulative
    C) lexical
  27. What is the relationship between the definiendum and the definiens? A) The definiendum is that which defines the definiens, B) Definienda are definitions that eliminate ambiguity; definiens are definitions which eliminate vagueness, C) The definiens is that which explains the meaning of the definiendum, D) The definiendum applies to stipulative definitions; the definiens does not
    C) The definiens is that which explains the meaning of the definiendum
  28. If you are told that “pig” means “swine,” you have been given what kind of definition? A) a false one, B) a synonymous definition, C) a definition by genus and species, D) a precising definition
    B) a synonymous definition
  29. A teacher says that “amphibian” means frogs, newts, and salamanders. Is she giving the students a definition? A) Yes. This is intensional definition. B) Yes. This is a definition by example. C) No. A list of objects is not a definition. D) No. The teacher is referring to some objects, but a real definition must refer to the intension of the term.
    B) Yes. This is a definition by example.
  30. A child points at her family dog and says “doggie” to her mother. This is an: A) extensional definition, B) intensional definition, C) ostensive definition, D) operational definition
    C) ostensive definition
  31. Advertisements featuring famous musicians selling life insurance are examples of the fallacy of: A) appeal to pity, B) appeal to inappropriate authority, C) appeal to emotion, D) argument ad hominem
    B) appeal to inappropriate authority
  32. “You should buy these shoes because everyone has them! Except ugly people, of course.” This speaker is making a fallacy of: A) appeal to inappropriate authority, B) ad hominem, C) ad populum, D) argument from ignorance
    C) ad populum
  33. Which fallacy occurs when we confuse temporal with causal relations? A) division, B) amphiboly, C) false cause, D) equivocation
    C) false cause
  34. “I often see dogs in the park. You have a dog; therefore, I often see your dog in the park.” This commits the fallacy of: A) false cause, B) equivocation, C) accent, D) division
    D) division
  35. Defense lawyers often explain the actions of their clients by referring to their client’s own mistreatment as a child. These explanations may be committing what fallacy? A) appeal to pity, B) appeal to emotion, C) irrelevant conclusion, D) appeal to force
    A or B: appeal to pity or appeal to emotion
  36. “I know there are angels! There must be no one can prove that they don’t exist!” This commits the fallacy of: A) argument from ignorance, B) appeal to emotion, C) appeal to inappropriate authority, D) irrelevant conclusion
    A) argument from ignorance
  37. Which of the following statements is true? A) ‘2’ = ‘II’, B) 2 = II, C) Two = ‘2’, D) 2 = ‘2’
    B) 2 = II
  38. Select the statement that is false. A) “’Moe’” refers to “Moe”. B) “Moe” refers to ‘Moe’. C) Moe’s name is ‘Moe’. D) Moe refers to ‘Moe’.
    D) Moe refers to ‘Moe’.
  39. Two terms are co-referential when: A) They have the same intension, B) They refer to all and only the same things, C) They have the same extension, D) All of the above
    B, C, or D: They refer to all and only the same things, or they have the same extension, or all of the above
  40. ‘Unicorn’ and ‘dragon’ have: A) The same extension but different intensions, B) The same intension but different extensions, C) Different extensions and different intensions, D) The same extension and the same intension
    A) The same extension but different intensions
  41. How do we distinguish an ampliative from a deductive argument? A) In deductive arguments, the truth of the premises makes the truth of the conclusion likely; whereas in ampliative arguments, the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion. B) In ampliative arguments, the truth of the premises makes the truth of the conclusion likely; whereas in deductive arguments the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion. C) All deductive arguments are valid; whereas some ampliative arguments are invalid. D) Ampliative arguments are not useful in science, ethics, and philosophy; whereas deductive arguments are.
    B) In ampliative arguments, the truth of the premises makes the truth of the conclusion likely; whereas in deductive arguments the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion.
  42. A __________ proposition makes only one assertion. A) complex, B) simple, C) disjunctive
    B) simple
  43. The __________ of an argument is the proposition that is affirmed on the basis of other propositions in the argument. A) conclusion, B) premise, C) complex proposition
    A) conclusion
  44. An inductive argument claims to support its conclusion only with some degree of __________. A) validity, B) probability, C) soundness
    B) probability
  45. To clarify the relations between the premises and conclusion in an argument, it is often helpful to __________ or diagram them. (A) analyze, B) paraphrase, C) deduce
    B) paraphrase
  46. When a pastor says to a couple, “I now pronounce you man and wife,” he/she is using __________ language. A) exclamatory, B) imperative, C) performative
    C) performative
  47. The petitio principii (begging the question fallacy) assumes the __________ of what it seeks to prove. A) falsity, B) truth, C) ambiguity
    B) truth
  48. In the fallacy of __________, we reason from the attributes of the parts to the attributes of the whole. A) composition, B) division, C) hasty generalization
    A) composition
  49. Consider the following sentences: (i) The Morning Star is the Morning Star. (ii) The Morning Star is the Evening Star. ‘Morning Star’ and ‘Evening Star’ are co-referential, yet (ii) is informative whereas (i) is not. Why? A) Those two terms have different intensions. B) Those two terms have different extensions, C) Those two terms both refer to the planet Venus.
    A) Those two terms have different intensions.
  50. Consider the following two arguments: (1) It is raining or it is snowing. It is not raining. Therefore, it is snowing. (2) Three is odd or three is even. Three is not odd. Therefore, three is even. What do they have in common? A) their content, B) their extensions, C) the abstract logical form, D) their conclusions are false
    C) the abstract logical form

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