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2010-07-20 21:15:48
anatomy cardiovascular system blood

Chapter 19: The Blood
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  1. Blood
    Connective tissue derived from mesoderm. Consists of plasma.
  2. Plasma (55% of blood)
    Liquid matrix containing dissolved ions and molecules along with suspended cells and cell fragments.

    • 91.5% water
    • 8.5% solutes

    88% of solutes in plasma are plasma proteins, most synthesized by the liver
  3. Interstitial fluid
    Fluid which passes out of plasma and bathes cells of all tissues. Nutrients and oxygen delivered to cells. Wastes are carried away from cells.
  4. Functions of Blood
    transportation: nutrients, wastes, hormones, heat

    regulation: pH, body temperature, osmotic pressure

    protection: clotting, immune system components
  5. Plasma proteins and other solutes
    Albumins 54% of plasma proteins

    Globulins 38%

    Fibrinogen 7%

    Other solutes: electrolytes, nutrients, wastes, gases, hormones
  6. Formed elements in blood (45% of blood)
    • Red blood cells
    • White blood cells
    • Platelets
  7. Hematocrit
    % of blood volume occupied by red blood cells

    • normal males: 40-54%
    • normal females: 38-46%
  8. Anemia
    Low red blood cell count
  9. Polycythemia
    High red blood cell count

    Blood doping: (transfusion of RBC) polycythemia to increase athletic performance
  10. Erythropoietin
    A glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. It is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow.Also called hematopoietin or hemopoietin, it is produced by the peritubular capillary endothelial cells in the kidney and liver, it is the hormone that regulates red blood cell production. It also has other known biological functions. For example, erythropoietin plays an important role in the brain's response to neuronal injury.[1] EPO is also involved in the wound healing process.[2]
  11. Procrit and/or Epogen
    A synthetic form of erythropoietin. It stimulates erythropoiesis (increases red blood cell levels) and is used to treat anemia, commonly associated with chronic renal failure and cancer chemotherapy.
  12. Hemopoiesis
    Formation of blood cells.

    • Begins in yolk sac, moves to liver and spleen,
    • last 3 months before birth forms in red bone marrow