Electric Forces & Fields

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  1. conservation of electric charge
    no charge is ever created nor destroyed
  2. quantized
    charge occurs in discrete amounts in nature
  3. conductors
    electric charges move freely, give up electrons which move
  4. insulators
    charges do not move freely, no allowing electron transfer
  5. semiconductors
    in between conductors and insulators; pure state insulators
  6. charging by contact
    • rubbing, friction, or contact
    • both insulators and conductors
  7. induction
    charging a conductor by bringing it near another charged object and grounding the conductor, charges become redistributed and some electrons travel to the ground
  8. grounded
    in induction, conductor is connected to earth via pipe which provides path for charge flow
  9. polarization
    • process where positive and negative centers shift slightly in the presence of a charged object, unequal distribution of charge that can attract/repel objects¬†
    • only insulators
  10. electric force
    force exerted with charged objects near each other; field force with no physical contact needed
  11. strength of electric force
    closer the objects, greater the force
  12. electric and gravity force
    • electric is attractive and repulsive, gravity is attractive
    • electric is way stronger
  13. principle of superposition
    the resultant force on any single charge is the vector sum of individual forces exerted on that charge by other individual charges
  14. electric field
    region in space around a charged object in which a stationary charged object experiences an electric force bc of its charge
  15. test charge
    idealized model of charged object, always positive q
  16. electric field strength and distance
    more distance=weaker, less distance=stronger
  17. field lines directions for charges
    • positive: lines directed outward
    • negative: lines directed inward
  18. electric field lines
    represent magnitude and direction of electric field
  19. number of field lines and field strength
    E is stronger when lines are closer together; number of lines is proportional to magnitude of charge (draw double the amount of lines for 2q as for q)
  20. electric dipole
    charge configuration of two electric field lines for two point charges of equal magnitudes but opposite signs
  21. electrostatic equilibrium
    no net motion of charge is occurring within a conductor
  22. sign of attractive/repulsive forces
    attractive negative; repulsive positive
  23. Coulomb's law
    • electric force btwn two charges is proportional to the product of the two charges (if one charge is doubled, the electric force is doubled)
    • electric force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance btwn the charges (when distance btwn two charges is halved, the force btwn them increases by 4)
  24. charge of protons and neutrons
  25. conductors in electrostatic equilibrium
    • electric field is zero everywhere within the conductor
    • any excess charge on an isolated conductor resides entirely on the conductor's outer surface
    • electric field just outside a charged conductor is perpendicular to the conductor's surface
    • with irregularly shaped conductors, the charge tends to accumulate where the radius of the curve of the surface is the smallest (sharp points)
Card Set:
Electric Forces & Fields
2014-05-31 17:21:33
Chapter Seventeen
H Physics
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