Community Health - term 2
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describe incidence and prevalence
incidence: the number on new cases in a certain population in a specified period of time
prevalence: a "snapshot" of the number of cases in a population
e.g. HIV has high prevalence but low incidence because it is a chronic disease
Describe relative risk and absolute risk difference
If men have a 10% chance of getting it and women have a 5% chance of getting it
men have twice the relative risk and 5% greater absolute risk
difference between relative risk and an odds ratio
relative risk: ratio of incidences (number of cases/total population)
odd ratio: ratio of the odds (number of cases/number of people not affected)
describe cross-sectional study, cohort studies, case control studies
cross-sectional: "snapshot" study (how many people have it now?
cohort study: given different exposures how many will develop the disease?
case-control: look back in time at those with and without the disease and see the odds of them having the exposure
Describe the difference between primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention
define sensitivity and specificity. equation
sens: ability to test for those with true disease. (# true positives/ # with disease)
spec: ability to test for those without disease (# of true negatives/ # without disease)
Describe the three ways of evaluating interventions
- Efficacy: outcomes of the intervention as planned
- Effectiveness: outcomes of the interventions as delivered
- Efficiency: e.g. years of life gained per dollar spent
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