Chapter 1- cardiovascular physiology
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The exchange between the blood and the outside environment occurs in several different organs. What organs are these (4)?
- 1. Lungs
- 2. GI Tract
- 3. Kidneys
- 4. Skin
What does the blood pick up from the intestinal lumen (4)?
- 1. Glucose
- 2. Amino acids
- 3. Fatty acids
- 4. Other ingested substances
What organs are waste products eliminated through?
Cells require what two things?
- 1. The right amount of water.
- 2. Electrolytes
What are three main electrolytes?
- 1. Sodium
- 2. Potassium
- 3. Calcium
What is the ultimate purpose of the CVS system?
To facilitate the exchange of gases, fluid, electrolytes, large molecules, and heat between cells and the environment.
What is the three main components of the cardiovascular system?
- 1. the Heart
- 2. Blood vessels
- 3. Lymphatic system
What process causes fluid retention or edema?
Called: Fluid filtration
What is Fluid Filtration?
As blood flows through organs, some of the fluid, along with electrolytes and small amounts of protein, leaves the circulation and enters the tissue interstitium.
What is closely associated with small blood vessels within the tissue?
What does the lymphatic vessels enter into?
The large veins- Subclavian Veins
How to think more accurately about the heart as a pump!!
Receives blood from venous blood vessels at low pressure, imparts energy to the blood (raises it to a higher pressure) by contracting around the blood within the cardiac chambers, and then ejects the blood into the arterial blood vessels.
Organ blood flow is determined by ....
Arterial pressure minus venous pressure
Vascular Resistance is determined by (3):
- 1. Size of the blood vessel (longer = more resistance than shorter).
- 2. Anatomical arrangement of vascular network (twisting arrangement = more resistance than straight)
- 3. Viscosity or thickness of the blood flowing within the vascular. ( thicker = more resistance than thinner)
What is the units of pressure?
Blood flow is driven by..
not the output of the heart but by the pressure generated within the arterial system.
stroke volume X HR
Stroke volume is regulated by
intrinsic mechanisms that are autonomic nerves and hormones.
the stroke volume which is the amount of blood ejected with each contraction.
An important hormone that the heart makes is
Atrial natriuretic peptide-plays an important role in the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure.
Changes in blood vessel diameter are brought about by (4)
- 1.) activation of vascular smooth tissue
- 2.) autonomic nerves that are inside the walls
- 3.)metabolic and biochemical signals from outside of the blood vessel
- 4.) vasoactive substances released by endothelial cells that line the blood vessels.
Function of blood vessels
- 1.) distribution of blood flow and exchange
- 2.) endothelium lining blood vessels produces substances that modulate hemostasis (blood clotting) and inflammatory responses.
Arterial pressure is maintained during exercise by
increasing cardiac output and by constricting blood vessels in other organs of the body.
What is cardiac output?
The amount of blood pumped in one minute.
What is the normal cardiac output?
5-6 Liters per minute.
What do arteries carry?
oxygen and nutrients
intracellular means what?
within the cell
interstitial mean what?
between the cell
What kind of process gets the nutrients into the cell?
What amount of body fluid is found within the cells?
What causes you to breathe?
it is high co2
How does cardiovascular system work?
by negative feedback
What is the cardiac output for someone who is exercising?
How much blood does the heart receive out of the total cardiac output?
How much oxygen supplied to the heart does the heart use?
How much o2 is in the left heart?
The right ventricle has how much o2 satuation?
What does the anterior interventricular groove contain?
the anterior left descending coronary artery
What does the posterior interventricular groove contain?
the posterior interventricular descending coronary artery and the middle cardiac vein.
What is the difference between the interatrial grooves compared to the interventricular grooves?
The interatrial grooves are more shallow and less pronounced.
What meet to form the crux of the heart?
interatrial, atrioventricular, and posterior interventricular.
The depression in the middle of the interatrial septum is known as the
THe opening that was during fetal circulation that was found the depression in the middle of the interatrial spetum is called?
What is the Eusachian valve?
is a part of the fetal circulation it protrudes into the right atrium at he end of the IVC just as the IVC enters into the right atrium.
The AV node area is known as
Triangle of koch
What is crista supraventricularis?
a muscular ridge that courses anteriorly from the superior to inferior vena cava. It divides the trabeculated anterior portion of the right atrium form the posterior smooth walled sinus venosus segment.
What band is the most prominent?
the moderator band
Where is the left atrial appendage located
the anterior part of the atrium
What is significant about the left atrial appendage?
It is common site for thrombus formation.
What atrium walls are thicker and why?
The left atrium walls are thicker than the right atrium due to the higher pressure.
What does the inflow include?
- 1.) mitral valve apparatus
- 2.) chordae tendinae
- 3.)papillary muscles
HOw are the valves controlled or driven?
they are driven by pressure. When the atria in the atria exceeds the pressure in the ventricles, these valves open and allow blood to flow into the ventricle.
The papillary muscles contract when ...
the ventricles contracts, but they do not help the AV to close.
What is the ligamentum arteriosus?
the fetal attachment from the descending aorta to the pulmonary artery. It is called a Patent ductus arteriosus when it is open during fetal life.
The brachiocephalic artery divides into
the right common carotid and the right subclavian artery.
The normal amount of fluid found within the pericardial space is
Can you live without your pericardium?
The endothelial cells have the property of
the property of preventing blood from clotting
Three main facts about the pulmonary system?
- 1.) composed of the right heart and lungs.
- 2.) carries deoxygenated blood
- 3.) has low resistance or low pressure
Three main facts about the systemic system?
- 1.) composed of the left heart pump and the systemic organs except the lungs and the arteries that supply them.
- 2.) carries oxygenated blood
- 3.) high resistance or high pressure
What are "in series" with each other?
the right and the left heart are in series
In what "in series" or "in parallel" is there no shift in the blood volume?
The circulation of most organs is in what?
What does in parallel mean?
the aorta feeds into most of the organs
wHat does the kidneys do?
it filters and cleans the blood.
Important facts about in parallel systems
- 1.) flow through any one of the organs can be controlled independently
- 2.) therefore the body can increase blood flow to one particular organ and decrease it to another
What makes organs conditioners?
organs that continually recondition the blood
What organs are conditioners?
- 1.) lungs- exchange poor oxygen for rich in oxygen
- 2.) Kidneys- they continually adjust the electrolyte composition of the blood.
- 3.) skin-it can withstand severe reductions in blood flow for short periods of time when it is necesary to conserve body heat.
- 4.) liver- because it acts as a filter
Users are organs who
do not recondition the blood for any other organs. and they do not tolerate interruptions in blood flow.
what organs are considered users
brain, heart muscle, and skeletal muscles
The right atrium receives blood from what three vessels
- 1.) superior vena cava
- 2.) inferior vena cava
- 3.) coronary sinus
the right ventricle (4)
- 1.) is crescent shaped
- 2.) the walls are thinner
- 3.) heavily trabeculated
- 4.) low pressure
What are trabeculate?
muslcular ridges that line the inside that helps for the blood to not clot.
Where is the moderator band located?
The left atrial appendage is located in
the left atrium
the fossa ovalis flap is located
on the interatrial septum of the left atrium
The left atrium are
1.) thicker walled because they withstand higher pressure
the left ventricle (4)
- 1.) conical in shape
- 2.) smoother walls
- 3.) thicker walls
- 4.) higher pressure
What heart cavity has 75% of the hearts total muscle mass?
the valves are
passive structures- they open and close in response to pressure changes
the tricuspid valve (3)
- 1.) located between the right atrium and right ventricle
- 2.) has three leaflets
- 3.) has the largest opening
the mitral valve (2)
- 1.) located between the left atrium and left ventricle
- 2.) two leaflets
What semilunar valve can we live without?
HOw many cusps does the pulmonic valve?
the aortic valve looks like
an upside down mercedes benz sign
HOw many cusps does the aortic valve have?
the right coronary artery splits into
acute marginal and posterior descending
the acute marginal comes off and supplies
- right coronary artery
- supplies the RV
The posterior descending comes off and supplies (3)
- right coronary artery
- supplies the RA
- free wall RV
- posterior wall of LV
the left coronary artery splits into
circumflex and anterior descending
the circumflex comes from and supplies (3)
- left coronary artery
- supplies the lateral wall LV
- sometimes posterior wall of LV
the anterior descending comes from and supplies(2)
- left coronary artery
- supplies the septum
- and anterior wall
the venous drainage is from what three veins
- great cardiac vein
- middle cardiac vein
- coronary sinus
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