Immunology

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Author:
michaelirby98
ID:
275072
Filename:
Immunology
Updated:
2014-05-22 04:21:46
Tags:
micro
Folders:
Micro
Description:
Micro
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  1. Innate Immunity
    • Non-Specific 
    • Two lines of defense
  2. 1st line of defense
    • Intact skin
    • Mucous membranes and their secretions
    • Normal microbiota
  3. 2nd Line of defense
    • Phagocytes, such as nuetrophils, esinophils, dendritic cells and macrophages 
    • Inflammation 
    • Fever 
    • Antimicrobial substances
  4. 3rd line of defense
    • Specialized lymphocytes T cells and B cells 
    • Antibodies
    • Humoral Immunity and Cell mediated immunity
  5. 1st line of defense/barriers to entry
    • Intact skin
    • Mucous membranes 
    • Sweat Glands, sebaceous 
    • Cilia 
    • Urination, defecation 
    • Normal Flora 
    • Reflexes
  6. 1st line of defense/chemicals
    • Lysozyme in tears, saliva (gram +)
    • pH in skin, stomach, vagina 
    • Sebum
    • Meibomian glands
  7. Phagocytes
    • Neutrophils (1st responder, most phagocytic WBC)
    • Eosinophils 
    • Monocytes -> Macrophages
  8. Natural Killer Cells (NK cells)
    • Lymphocytes that kill chemically
    • Good against: Protozoans, Fungi, Virally-infected host cells, cancerous cells
  9. Inflammatory Response
    Response to tissue damage
  10. 3 basic stages to inflammatory response
    • Vasodilation & increased permeability of blood vessels 
    • Phagocytic migration & diapedesis 
    • Repair
  11. Stage 1 of inflammatory response
    • Vasodilation & Increased Permeability of Blood Vessels 
    • Blood vessels diameter increases 
    • Defensive materials are delivered from blood (Antibodies, phagocytes, Clot-forming chemicals)
  12. Stage 2 of Inflammatory response
    • Phagocytic migration & Diapedesis 
    • WBC's squeeze into tissues from blood 
    • Neutrophils arrive 1st then macrophages
  13. Stage 3 of inflammatory response
    • Repair tissues 
    • Scab
    • Clot
    • Regenerated epidermis 
    • Regenerated dermis(Stroma)
  14. Diapedesis
    • Part of step 2 of inflammatory response 
    • Phagocytes squeeze through endothelial cells
  15. Metabolic Response of Host to infection
    • Fever (pyrogens)
    • Iron removal from lactoferrin
  16. Lactoferrin
    • Removes Iron from infected host
    • Part of the Metabolic response
  17. Chemicals in the 2nd line of defense
    • Interferon
    • Complement System
  18. Interferon
    • Produced by Virally Infected cells 
    • Binds to nearby uninfected cell receptors 
    • Induces production of Antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication
    • Enhances immune response
  19. Complement System
    • Group of Blood Plasma Proteins & cells membrane proteins 
    • Dilate arteries 
    • Act as chemotactic agents 
    • Bind to microbe & Interact w.phagocytic receptors, promoting phagocytosis(Opsonization)
    • Cytolysis via "Membrane Attack Complex"
  20. Opsonization
    Chemicals that bind to microbe and interact w/phagocytic receptors, promoting phagocytosis
  21. Humoral Immunity
    • Antibodies in body fluids 
    • B cells (Lymphocytes)
    • Bone Marrow Stem Cells 
    • Clonal Section
  22. Clonal Section
    • B cell activated when Antigen Reacts w/receptors on surface 
    • Activated B cell -> Plasma, memory cells
  23. Cell mediated Immunity (CMI)
    • T cells (lymphocytes)
    • Mature in thymus 
    • From bone marrow stem cells 
    • Mature T cells -> Lymphoid tissue
    • Differentiate when stimulated by antigen
  24. 4 types of C cells
    • Cytotoxic 
    • Helper 
    • Memory
    • Regulatory
  25. Cytotoxic T Cell
    • Cytolytic 
    • Virally-infected cells, some tumor cells, transplant cells
  26. Helper T cell
    • "Commander of Entire System"
    • Produce various cytokines 
    • Interact with macrophages
  27. Memory T Cells
    • Recognize foreign antigen 
    • Results in FASTER response to subsequent exposure
  28. Regulatory T Cell
    Turns off immune response
  29. 5 types of cytokines
    • Interleukin 1
    • Interleukin 2
    • B Cell Growth Factor 
    • B Cell Differentiation Factor
  30. Interleukin 1
    • Type of cytokine 
    • Secreted by macrophage 
    • Activates TH Cells which secrete interleukin 2
    • Fever
  31. Interleukin 2
    • Type of Cytokine 
    • Secreted by TH
    • Triggers T Cells division
    • Stimulates TH and TC
    • Higher activation & Proliferation of NK, T, B Cells
  32. B Cell Growth Factor
    • Source is TH Cells 
    • B Cells Prepare for Mitosis and Clonal Expansion
  33. B Cell Differentiation Factor
    • Source TH Cells 
    • B cells -> Plasma, memory B cells
  34. Interferon
    • Cytokine 
    • Source is TCells, Other cells 
    • Magnifies immune response
    • Blocks viral replication
  35. Her Immunity
    The Presence of immunity of a population
  36. Passive immunity
    • Antibodies Transferred 
    • No Immune Response by recipient 
    • No Memory
    • Short term effects, rapid
  37. Active Immunity
    • Antigen Emposure 
    • Immune Response
    • Memory 
    • Time to Develop
    • Last Long time 

    • Natural(Infection)
    • Artificial(Immunization)
  38. Antibody-Delendent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity
    • Antibodies attach to parasite
    • Attracts Macrophages, eosinophils, and NK cells
  39. Antibody Opsonization
    Antibodies attach, enhance phagocytosis
  40. Antibody Agglutination and Precipitation
    • Large complexes, Clumping of Antigenic cells
    • Reduces number of Infectious Units to be Eliminated
  41. Antibody Complement Fixation
    • Bind to antigen
    • Portion of Antibody changes shape exposing complement binding sites 
    • Complement binds leading to inflammation and Cell lysis
  42. Antibody Neutralization
    Antibody Bind to Toxins, Viruses so no longer to attach to cell
  43. IgA (monomer/dimer)
    • Monomers in serum
    • Dimers in secretions
    • Protects mucosal surfaces
  44. IgE (Monomer)
    Involved in allergies and protozoan, helminth infestation
  45. IgG (monomer)
    • 80% of antibodies 
    • Cross Placenta 
    • Neutralize bacterial toxins 
    • Fix (active) complement

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