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Name the reagent and organic products from the Oxidation of a Primary Alcohol
: Acidified Potassium dichromate 6
: Aldehyde (distil) Carboxylic Acid (reflux)
What is oxidised to form a ketone ?
Secondary Alcohol under reflux
What does 2,4-DNP test for ?
The presence of a carbonyl group. Positive reaction is an Orange Precipitate
What reagent is used to distinguish between and aldehyde and a ketone ?
Reagent: Ammoniacal Silver Nitrate (Tollens reagent). Warm mixture and a positive result is a Silver Mirror. Positive result is for an Aldehyde. Negative result for Ketone
reduces Aldehydes to ?
reduces ketones to ?
Outline the mechanism for the nucleophilic addition reactions of Aldehydes and ketones with anhydrides such as NaBH
Give the definition of an Optical Isomer
Optical Isomers are
about an organic chiral centre
how do pharmaceutical drugs companies reduce the amount of non-useful optical isomers in their drugs ?
They can use chiral pool synthesis or biological catalysts such as enzymes to only produce the pharmacologically active drug
Describe the solubility of Carboxylic Acids
They are soluble in organic solvents and they are soluble in water due to hydrogen bonding.
Describe the esterification of carboxylic acid and alcohols and Carboxylic acids and esters.
Alcohol + Carboxylic Acid ---> Ester + Water
Alcohol + Acid Anhydride ---> Ester + Carboxylic Acid (reflux)
General A2 organic chemistry