F324

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Author:
jjeffery
ID:
275073
Filename:
F324
Updated:
2014-05-22 07:04:18
Tags:
Organic Chemistry
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Description:
General A2 organic chemistry
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  1. Name the reagent and organic products from the Oxidation of a Primary Alcohol
    • Reagent: Acidified Potassium dichromate 6
    • Organic Products: Aldehyde (distil) Carboxylic Acid (reflux)
  2. What is oxidised to form a ketone ?
    Secondary Alcohol under reflux
  3. What does 2,4-DNP test for ?
    The presence of a carbonyl group. Positive reaction is an Orange Precipitate
  4. What reagent is used to distinguish between and aldehyde and a ketone ?
    Reagent: Ammoniacal Silver Nitrate (Tollens reagent). Warm mixture and a positive result is a Silver Mirror. Positive result is for an Aldehyde. Negative result for Ketone
  5. NaBH4 reduces Aldehydes to ?
    Primary Alcohols
  6. NaBH4 reduces ketones to ?
    Secondary Alcohols
  7. Outline the mechanism for the nucleophilic addition reactions of Aldehydes and ketones with anhydrides such as NaBH4.
  8. Give the definition of an Optical Isomer
    Optical Isomers are non-superimposable mirror images about an organic chiral centre
  9. how do pharmaceutical drugs companies reduce the amount of non-useful optical isomers in their drugs ?
    They can use chiral pool synthesis or biological catalysts such as enzymes to only produce the pharmacologically active drug
  10. Describe the solubility of Carboxylic Acids
    They are soluble in organic solvents and they are soluble in water due to hydrogen bonding.
  11. Describe the esterification of carboxylic acid and alcohols and Carboxylic acids and esters.
    • Alcohol + Carboxylic Acid ---> Ester + Water
    • Alcohol + Acid Anhydride ---> Ester + Carboxylic Acid (reflux)

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