Psych

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ssjostrom
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Psych
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2009-12-12 18:49:45
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  1. Elements of a Sensory System
    • Energy contains information about the world
    • 1. Accessory structure modifies energy
    • 2. Receptor transduces energy into a neural response
    • 3. Sensory nerves transfer coded activity to central nervous system
    • 4. Thalamus processes and relays the neural response.
    • 5. Cerebral cortex receives input and produces the sensation and perception
  2. Rods
    • Monochrome
    • More sensitive to light than cones
  3. Cones
    • 3 types
    • respond to different wavelengths
    • blue, red, green
    • less sensitive
  4. Photoreceptors
    • In retina
    • Rods and Cones
  5. Primary Visual Cortex
    • striate cortex, v1
    • Two main subdivisions:
    • Blobs-color sensitive
    • Interblobs- oriented edge-detectors care about shape, form

    • Cytoarchitecture
    • -stain for cytochrome oxidase
    • Fuction
    • -with single-unit recording
    • Connectivity
    • -trace neural pathway
  6. VISION
    • pupil let light in
    • iris controls contraction/dialation of the pupil
    • light goes from the pupil to the lens which focuses the light onto the retina
    • retina converts image to nerve impulses
    • optic nerve composed of axons from ganglion cells
    • axons left to right, vice versa
    • end up at the primary visual cortex which reconstitutes the images
  7. Incidence
    • Dichromacy-only two cones
    • Anomalous trichromacy-something wrong with the cones

    •Anomalous trichromacy


    –Red-green

    •Protanomaly M: 1%, W: .02%

    •Deuteranomaly M: 1%, W: .01%

    –Blue-yellow

    •Tritanomaly M: .001%, W: .03%

    •Dichromacy


    –Red-green

    • •Proanopsia M:
    • 1.3%, W: .02%

    •Deuteranopsia M: 5%, W: .35%

    –Blue-Yellow

    •Tritanopsia M: .0001%, W: .0001%
  8. Receptive Fields
    • Photoreceptors-detect brightness, not pattern
    • Ganglion cells-detect pattern, not brightness
  9. Center-Surround Receptive Fields of Ganglion Cells
    • when in light, fire action potential
    • minus inhibitory
    • + excitatory
  10. Photoreceptors
    • Brightness detectors
    • Stronger post-synaptic potentials with brighter light
  11. Retinal Ganglion Cells
    • Edge detectors
    • Edge patterns: a change from light to dark
    • More action potentials with bigger difference in luminance between lighta nd dark ( contrast)
  12. Mechano-receptors
    Receptors that produce a neural signal when they are mechanically stimulated, or moved
  13. Pacinian Corpuscles
    • Fast Adapting
    • Pressure Vibrations
  14. Ruffini Organ
    • Slowly adapting
    • Directional skin-stretch
  15. Merkel Disks
    • Slowly adapting
    • Pressures/Textures
  16. Free-nerve endings
    • Most common type
    • Pressure
    • Temperature
    • Pain (nociception)
  17. Proprioceptive Receptors
    • 3 types for kinesthesia
    • Body position sense
    • -muscle stretch
    • -tendon stretch
    • -joint movement

    • 1 type for vestibular
    • -balance
    • --semi-circular canals-gel filled tubes, sense equilibrium, help us keep our balance, fluid disrupted, activate hair cells
  18. Nocioception
    • 2 types of free-nerve endings
    • A-delta fibers
    • -acute sharp pain
    • C-fibers
    • -chronic or dull pain
    • pain usually caused by tissue damage or inflammation
  19. Gate control Theory
    free-nerve endings fire action potentials when hit head, touch receptors in the same spot if rubbed travel together and interact touch signals inhibit pain signals, reduces the level, feels better
  20. Somatosense
    • Haptics
    • -vibration, skin indentation, pressure
    • Nociception
    • -pain and temperature
    • Proprioception
    • -kinesthesia
    • -vestibular
  21. Garalesis and Knismesis
    • -heavy tickling in ticklish areas that usually evokes laughter (bonding, protective, prenatal)
    • -very light movement across skin (insects)
  22. Sound Waves
    • Amplitude is related to loudness
    • Frequency/wavelength is related to pitch
  23. The Auditory System
    • -cochlea
    • -auditory nerve
    • -brainstem
    • -thalamus
    • ---medial geniculate nucleus
    • -auditory cortex
    • ---close connections with language area
  24. Auditory Pathway
    • auditory nerve crosses the brain's midline
    • medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
    • information is then relayed to the primary auditory cortex
  25. Conductive Hearing Loss
    • ostosclerosis, ear drum damage, excessive ear wax
    • hearing aids can help
    • -amplify up to 60 db
    • mainly amplify speech range
  26. Sensorineural Hearing Loss
    • presbycusis: old hearing
    • noise-induced hearing loss
    • cochlear implants may help
    • -bypass hair cells and stimulate auditory nerve fibers directly
  27. Patient D.F.
    • Anoxia (carbon monoxide) brain damage
    • small right, lower VF scotoma
    • apperceptive agnosia
    • -difficulty recognizing objects
    • cannot read or recognize faces
    • can't recognize line drawings
    • describes what objects are made of
    • can tell difference btwn rectangles by brightness not by shapes
    • cannot judge, perceive, report width
    • can use visual info for action but not perception
  28. The "What" Pathway
    • Other visual areas
    • -contain more complex receptive fields

    • Temporal Lobe
    • -contains many specialized areas for recognizing various things

    • Ventral (bottom) stream
    • -ventral occipital lobe
    • -temporal lobe
    • Main function: recognition
  29. The "Where" or "How" Pathway
    • Parietal Lobe
    • -contains many specialized areas for using vision to guide actions in space

    • Dorsal (top) stream
    • -dorsal occipital lobe
    • -posterior parietal lobe
    • Main fuctions
    • -visuo-motor control (actions)
    • --grasping
  30. Stanford Prison Study
    • prisoners and guards
    • IRB approved
    • stopped after 6 days people
    • psychological mistreatment
    • prisoners forgot it was an experiment
  31. Nazi War Crimes
    • freezing, malaria, strerilization, poison
    • defense: similar to previous experiments done by America and Germany
    • No international law document illegal human experimentation
  32. Nuremburg Code
    • 1948
    • First international document related to human participation in experiments
    • Key Points:
    • participation is voluntary
    • participation requires consent
    • benefits must outweigh risks
  33. Thalimode Tragedy
    • sedative for morning sickness 1956-1961
    • very harmful for fetus
    • NOT approved by FDA
  34. Kefauver Amendments
    • 1962
    • Drug manufacturers were required to prove effectiveness of their product before marketing
  35. Declaration of Helsinki
    • 1964 World Medical Association
    • Key Points:
    • informed consent if necessary
    • benefits outweigh risks
    • human research based on animal research
    • protocols should be reviewed by a committee
    • research conducted by qualified personnel
  36. Tuskegee Syphilis Study
    • 193-1972
    • 400 African-Americans infected with syphilis
    • diagnosis and treatment withheld
  37. National Research Act
    • 93rd US Congree 1973-1975
    • Required that human subjects be protected while participating in research
    • Human subjects now protected by the law
  38. Belmont Report
    • National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
    • 1979
    • 3 ethical priniciples
    • Respect for persons
    • -informed consent
    • Beneficence
    • -benefits>risks
    • Justice
    • -fair selection of sample
  39. Schizophrenia
    • a pattern of extremely disturbed thinking, emotion, perception and behavior
    • ability to communicate and relate to others is severely impaired
    • most aspects of daily functioning are disrupted
    • one of the most severe and disabling mental disorders
  40. Positive Symptoms
    • added behavior
    • -hallucinations
    • -delusions
    • -confused thinking
    • -disorganized behavior
    • -self-neglect
    • -inappropriate emotions
  41. Negative Symptoms
    • removed from behavior
    • -inability to experience pleasure
    • -lack of emotion
    • -loss of motivation to succeed
    • -problems with attention and confusion
  42. Categorizing Schizophrenia
    • Paranoid
    • Disorganized
    • Catatonic
    • Undifferentiated
    • Residual
    • Positive versus negative symptom dimension
    • Psychotic
    • -hallucinations and delusions
    • Disorganized
    • -confused thoughts
    • Negative
    • -lack of motivation
  43. Risk Factors for Schizophrenia
    • -heredity
    • -childhood head injury
    • -father was >50 at conception
    • -viral infection during pregnancy
    • -substance abuse

    • Risk factors for relapse:
    • -symptoms develop slowly
    • -delay treatment
    • -social isolation
    • -poor fam support
    • -heredity
    • -industrialized country
    • -sex (male)
    • -substance abuse
    • -stop taking meds
  44. Other Biological Factors for Schizo
    Possible abnormalities in brain chemistry, especially in neurotransmitter systems that use dopamine
  45. Psychological Factors for Schizophrenia
    • not considered primary factor
    • -maladaptive learning experiences
    • -stressful family communication patterns
  46. Treatment
    • Cause unknown
    • -eliminate symptoms
    • -reduce relapses
    • -improve level of social functioning

    • negative symptoms are often resistant to treatment
    • anti-psychotics
    • 1st generation-haldol, thorazine
    • 2nd generation-risperdal, zyprexa
    • lithium (mood stabilizer)
    • anti-anxiety
    • anti-depressants
  47. Visual Search
    • using attention to select targe is affected by:
    • amount of distracting information
    • similarity of distractors to target
  48. Change Blindness
    • attention is limited capacity
    • -we do not "see" everything all the time
    • Attention is selective
    • -sometimes selection is reflexive (automatic)
    • --saliency
    • -sometimes selection is controlled (voluntary)
    • --we decide where to attend
  49. Bottom-up/ Top-down
    • B-Up
    • -saliency
    • -how complicated scene is

    • T-down
    • -expectations
    • -easier if you've seen it before
    • -easier if you know what to look for
  50. ADHD
    • attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    • symptoms:
    • -impulsiveness
    • -hyperactivity
    • -inattention
    • Co-exist with:
    • conduct disorder
    • bipolar disorder
    • anxiety disorder
  51. ADHD risk factors, treatment
    • Risk factors:
    • hereitability
    • diet (sugar, additives)
    • Treatment
    • -Behavioral: self-regulation, monitoring
    • -Pharmacological-stimulants
  52. Hearing
    • Outer ear: pinna and ear canal funnels sound waves onto the eardrum
    • Middle ear: ossicles and hammer, anvil, stirrup vibrate at frequency and transmit it to the inner ear
    • Inner ear: cochlea converts vibrations into neural activity
    • Organ of Corti and basilar membrane have hair cells embedded in them which convert acoustic information into action potentials. sound waves travel through cochlea, pressure deflects cilia, excite hair cells, info feeds to auditory nerve, which travels to the brain.
  53. Cannon-Bard Theory
    • "I'm shaking and afraid at the same time"
    • oncoming car->subcortical brain activity--ANS and Fear
  54. Activiation Synthesis Theory
    Pons transmits random signals to thalamus, relays info to the forebrain of the cerebral cortex, forebrain attempts to make story from info
  55. Suicide & Depression
    • -depression implicated in 40-60% of suicides
    • most common 65 or older
    • 3rd leading cause of death among adolescents
    • leading cause of death among college students
    • women attempt 3 times more
    • men 4 times more successful
  56. Sleep Paralysis & REM Behavior Disorder
    • state of being unable to move just after falling asleep/waking up
    • REM-inability to become paralyzed during REM so act out dreams
  57. Wescheler Adult Intelligence Scale
    • Tester calculate: verbal IQ, performance IQ, Full Scale IQ
    • verbal: digital span, vocab, arithmetic comprehension
    • performance: pic completion, pic arrangement, block design, puzzzle
  58. AGONISTS
    ANTAGONISTS
    • ag-enhance receptor site activity
    • (cause vesicle release, block re-uptake, directly stimulates receptors, inactivates breakdown enzyme)
    • antag-inactivates receptor site activity
    • (inactivates production enzyme, vesicles leaky, prevents vesicle release, blocks receptors
  59. Bipolar and Cyclothymic Disorder
    • alternates between depression and mania
    • mania (agitated, elated, energetic)
    • RF-previous episode, heredity, stress, substance abuse
    • Treatments: mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, electroconvulsive shock treatment, valium
    • Causes-biological-imbalance in serotonin, cortisol (stress response hormone) disruption of biological rhytms

    Cyclothymic-same symptoms; mood swings are less extreme
  60. Anorexia Nervosa
    • Symptoms: 85% of ideal weight, distorted body image, denies weight-loss, stops menstruating
    • Risk Factors: teenager, female, stressful life event, family history of obesity, depression, gymnast/model, perfectionist, low self-esteem FAMILY HISTORY, PERSONALITY TRAITS, SOCIAL FACTORS, low serotonin
  61. Mood Disorders
    • conditions in which a person experiences extreme moods that are not consistent with surrounding events
    • RF-sex, marital unhapppiness, over 65, heredity, previous episode, stress
    • T-antidepressants, electroconvulsive shock therapy, exercise, light therapy
  62. Sleep Apnea
    • blockage of airway during sleep
    • Obstructure-most common, throat muscles are too relaxed
    • Central-problem with brain's feedback mechanism
    • Treatment: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
  63. Narcolepsy
    • rapid onset of sleep
    • 4 symtpoms: hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, cataplexy, automatic behavior
    • genetic
    • treatment-stimulants, sedatives,
  64. 1. Acetylcholine
    2. Dopamine
    3. Norepinephrine
    4. Serotonin
    5. Gama-AminoButyric Scid
    6. Glutamate
    • 1. Excitatory acts on muscles (peripheral nervous system/adrenal medulla)
    • 2. Inhibitory Parkinsons
    • 3. Inhibitory
    • 4. Inhibitory-leads to depression
    • 5. Primary inhibitory
    • 6. Primary excitatory
  65. Axon
    • transmits action potentials (cascade of opening ion channels), propogate to end of axon
    • pre-synaptic side of synapse
    • carries signals away
  66. Somatic Nervous System
    • sends messages to Central Nervous System for processing (afferent)
    • sends messages from CNS to muscles to direct motion (efferent)

    voluntary action
  67. Nature/Nurture
    • Nature-all behavior biologically determined
    • Nurture-all behavior learned
  68. Info Flow
    info from neurons collected at dendrites, processed in cell body, passed on to axon, then to end feet passed on to target neuron
  69. Behavioral Genetics
    • measure the influence that these two factors have on specific behavior or mental processes
    • study individual variation in behavior relate it to genetic relationship between people
  70. Behaviorism
    cannot study mental processes, only behavior
  71. Neurotransmitter
    • chemical released by one cell that binds receptors of another cell
    • carries chemical message (inhibitory/excitatory)
  72. Action Potential
    • all or nothing electrochemical signal
    • must reach threshold of excitation
    • Electrochemical
    • -forces exerted on molecule ions
    • -voltage sensitive channels across membrane
    • -sodium potassium pump Na+ K+ pumps sodium in more positive
  73. Dendrites
    • collect information
    • INPUT
    • post synaptic side of synapse
    • send info to cell bodyy
    • carry post synaptic potentials
  74. Evolutionary Approach
    • sociobiological, ethological
    • behavior/mental processes determined by adaptation and natural selection
  75. Subcortical Structures
    • hindbrain}AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS
    • midbrain}
    • -substantia nigra disconnects from basal ganglia=parkinsons
    • Forebrain
    • -basal ganglia
    • ---striatum
    • LIMBIC
    • -hypothalamus-homeostasis
    • -pituitary
    • -hippocampus-memory
    • -amygdala-emotion
    • thalamus-relay station
  76. Production of Neurotransmitter
    • -Precursor molecule
    • -Prodcution enzyme converts to transmitters
    • -Moves to synaptic vesicles
    • -Transmitter released from vesicle during action potential
    • -Bonds with receptor
    • -Left over taken up by axon
    • -Breakdown enzyme converst back to precursor
  77. Neurons & Glial Cells
    • Neurons-specialized cells that rapidly respond to signals of their own
    • Glial-cells that help hold neurons together and help neurons communicate with one another
  78. Major Brain Structures
    • Phylogentetic
    • -ordre in which they evolved
    • Hindbrain
    • -cerebellum
    • Midbrain
    • -substantia nigra
    • Forebrain
    • -cortex
    • -subcortical structure
  79. Conditioning Over Time
    Unconditioned stimulus no longer paired with Conditioned stimulus the strength of conditioned response decreases called "extinction" response re-emerges "spontaneous recovery"
  80. Spatial & Temporary Resolution Tests
    • S: T:
    • fMRI EEG
    • PET TMS
    • TMS fMRI
    • EEG PET
  81. Classical Conditioning
    • Unconditioned stimulus>>>>>unconditioned response
    • neutral stimulus>>>>no response
    • pair those two>>>uncoditioned response
    • after
    • conditioned stimulus>>>conditoned response
  82. Autonomic Nervous System
    control activities independent out of one's control

    • Sympathetic-mobilizes body for action in face of stress
    • Parasympathetic-regulates the body's functions to conserve energy
  83. School of Functionalism
    • William James
    • what is consciousness
    • behavior is evolutionary adaptation to environment
  84. Basal Ganglia
    movement control
  85. Receptors
    • proteins on the cell membrane that receive chemical signals
    • recognizes certain neurotransmitters thus allowing it to begin a PSP in dendrite
  86. Cell Body
    • sums input
    • -input reaches threshold signals axon to fire action potential
  87. Nervous System
    • Central Nervous System
    • -brain
    • -spinal cord

    • Peripheral Nervous System
    • -somatic
    • -autonomic
    • --sympathetic
    • --parasympathetic
  88. Synapse
    • space between dendrite and axon
    • carries neurotransmitters
  89. Operant
    • Reinforcement-increases behavior
    • positive-addition of stimulus
    • negative-removal of stimulus
    • Punishment-decreases behavior
    • positive-addition of stimulus
    • negative-removal of stimulus
  90. Post Synaptic Potentials
    • excitatory EPSP-depolarization
    • inhibitory IPSP-hyperpolarization

    net polarization is the sum
  91. Types of Amnesia
    • Functional
    • -Retrograde-cannot remember past events before incident
    • -Anterograde-can't store new memories
    • -Lacunar-can't remember specific past event
    • -Childhood-can't remember childhood events

    • Etiological:
    • -organic-traumatic (head injury)
    • -----temporary
    • -psychological-global
    • ---complete retrograde amnesia-forget everything about who you were

    TRAUMATIC AMNESIA DIFFERENT FROM HM BECAUSE IT IS NEURODEGENERATIVE
  92. James-Lange Theory
    • I'm afraid because I'm shaking
    • oncoming car-ANS-fear
  93. Hypothalamus
    • monitors internal state
    • temperature, metabolites, hunger/satiety,
    • acts like thermostat
    • uses hormones through pituitary
  94. Transferred Excitation Experiment
    participants on high bridge judged interviewer as more attractive than participants on a low bridge
  95. Short Term Storage
    • capacity 7+/- items
    • rehearshal increases duration
    • chunking increases capacity
  96. Patient H.M.
    • epilepsy, remove hippocampi
    • Good LTM-events prior surgery
    • partial retrograde amnesia
    • Good STM-digital span
    • Severe anterograde-cannot form new memories
    • problem encoding
    • remembers classical conditioning
    • can't form new explicit memories
  97. Common Sense Theory
    "I'm shaking because I'm afraid"

    oncoming car>>fear>>>activation of autonomic nervous system
  98. Reliability/Validity
    • R-
    • low-different results and different times
    • high-same results at different times

    • V-
    • low: inaccurate conclusions and predictions
    • high-accurate conclusions and predictions
  99. Long Term Memory
    • capacity extremely large, unlimited
    • remember things for long periods of time
    • long term memories subject to distortion
  100. Implicit Memory
    • unconscious
    • Procedural-motor skills
    • Classical Conditioning-associations
    • Priming-perceptual facilitation
  101. Hunger and Satiety Center
    • H-Lateral Hypothalamus
    • S-Ventromedial Hypothalamus
  102. Lateralization
  103. Attention
    • attention controls awareness
    • attended objects enter short term store
  104. Aphasia
    • Broca (non-fluent)-slow speech, can't find words, phoenetic distortion, in frontal lobe
    • Wernicke's (fluent)-fluent speech, content is empty/inappropriate, deficit involving word meaning, in temporal lobe
  105. Correlation
    • relationship b/n 2 dependent variables
    • quantifies strength/direction of relationship
    • direction: positive/negative
    • strength: 0-1
    • -1 to 1 (direction)
  106. Schacter's attribution Theory
    oncoming car is dangerous-ANS and cognitive appraisal--conscious fear
  107. Depressive Disorder/Dysthmic
    • Major Depressive Disorder:
    • -sad hopeless for wks/mnths
    • -lose interest
    • -changes in sleep/eat habits
    • -thinking about suicide

    • Dysthmic
    • -same, less intense, longer
  108. Explicit Memory
    • conscious
    • Episodic Memory-oriented back in time, mental time travle, past events HM cannot make these
    • Semantic Memory-knowledge
  109. Homeostasis
    keeping state of our body maintained
  110. Psychological and Brain Science (Biological)
    • science seeks to understand neural substrates of behavior and mental processes
    • Behavior and mental processes determined by genes, hormones, and neurotransmitters
  111. Parkinson's Disease
    • symptoms: tremor, rigidity, slow movement, weakness
    • stages-Mild, Moderate, Advanced
    • cause- unknown degeneration of substantia nigra, low dopamine
    • Risk-after age 50
    • Treatment L-Dopa
    • dopaminergic pathway
  112. Huntington's Disease
    • -uncoordinated movement, rarely slow movements
    • decisions, short term memory, anxiety, depression all variable among individuals
    • cause: repeated section of gene HTT
    • mechanism of gene unknown, only treat symptoms
  113. Autism
    • congenital disorder of social interactions--difficulty communicating/relating with others
    • 1 in every 1000 6 in every 1000 has Autism spectrum disorder
    • Psychological Factors:
    • hyper-systematizing
    • -inability to ascribe self/others a mental state
    • executive dysfunction
    • -inflexible
    • weak central coherence
    • -absorbed in details
    • Pathophysiology:
    • excess neurons-over connected
    • teratogens
    • abnormal synapse
    • Risk-heredity, male, teratogens, MMR
    • Treatments-therapy, medications, behavioral training
  114. Autism Spectrum Classes
    • SOCIAL INTERACTION-poor non-verbal communication, difficulty establishing friendships
    • COMMUNICATION-hard to see listener's perspective
    • LIMITED INTEREST IN PLAY-unusual focus on parts of an object, preoccupation on topics
  115. Aspberger's Syndrome
    • simliar to autism, part of spectrum
    • bad social interaction, doesn't struggle with communication
  116. Alzheimer's Disease
    • -amyloid plaques/neurofibrilary fibers
    • -targets cholinergic neurons in early stages
    • -main symptom problem with memory
    • -no cure
    • -treat symptoms, drugs inhibit breakdown of acetylcholine
    • -neuro-degenerative, neruons atrophy over time
  117. Compensatory Reaction Hypothesis
    • like classical conditioning
    • accounts for cravings & tolerance
  118. Generalization
    strength of conditioned response will be weaker when the test stimulus is not the same as the conditioned stimulus
  119. Lateralization
    • -cognitive function that relies more on one side of the brain than the other
    • -hemisphereic lateralization
    • --brain function is represented solely in one hemisphere e.g. aphasia is caused by left sided brain damage suggests speech is represented in left hemisphere
  120. Independent/Dependent/Correlation/Causation
    • ind-manipulated
    • dep-measured
    • ind allows for experimenter to make statements about causation
    • w/out ind results can only be correlational

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