Physio Final

Card Set Information

Physio Final
2014-05-27 02:50:25

Physio final
Show Answers:

  1. Atmospheric Pressure
    760 mm Hg (at sea level)
  2. Negative air pressure
    Less than 760 mm Hg
  3. Positive air pressure
    More than 760 mm Hg
  4. Intrapleural pressure
    pressure within the pleura "balloon" which surrounds the lung
  5. Intrapulmonary pressure
    Pressure within the alveoli (tiny sacs) of the lung itself
  6. Atelectasis
    • Collapsed lung
    • Hole in the pleural "balloon" causes equalization of pressure and the collapse of the lung
  7. Pneumothorax
    Abnormal air in the intrapleural space, can lead to collapsed lung
  8. Boyle' Law on volume/pressure
    • Volume is inversely proportional to pressure
    • Increase in volume = decrease in pressure
  9. Inspiration
  10. Deep/forced inspirations
    as during exercise or pulmonary disease pectorals are used for more volume expansion of thorax
  11. Expiration
  12. Quite expiration
    Simple elasticity of the lungs decreases volume and increased pulmonary pressure
  13. Forced expiration
    Contraction of abdominal wall muscle
  14. Upper respiratory passageways
    Relatively large, very little resistance to airflow
  15. Lower respiratory passageway
    From medium-sized bronchioles on down, can alter diameter based on autonomic stimulation
  16. Epinephrine
    Used to treat life-threatening bronchioconstriction such as during asthma and anaphylactic shock
  17. Bronchioconstriction
    • Caused by the parasympathetic system
    • Inhibited by the sympathetic system
  18. Lung compliance
    The ease with which lungs can be expanded by muscle contraction of thorax
  19. Fibrosis
    Decreases lung compliance
  20. Blocked bronchi
    Decreases lung compliance
  21. Surface tension
    Alveoli difficult to expand
  22. Thorax inflexibility
    Decreases lung compliance
  23. Lung elasticity
    The ease with which lungs can contract to their normal resting size
  24. Emphysema
    Decreases lung elasticity
  25. Alveolar surface tension
    Liquid on surface of alveoli causes them to collapse to the smallest size
  26. Surfactant
    Lipoproteins that reduce the surface tension on alveoli, allowing them to expand more easily
  27. Infant respiratory distress syndrom
    Premature babies that do not yet produce enough surfactant
  28. Tidal volume
    Normal volume moving in/out
  29. Inspiratory reserve volume
    Volume inhaled after normal tidal volume when asked to take the deepest possible breath
  30. Expiratory reserve volume
    Volume exhaled after normal tidal volume when asked to force out all air possible
  31. Residual volume
    Air that remains in the lungs even after total forced exhalation
  32. Anatomical dead space
    • All areas where gas exchange does not occur
    • All but alveoli
  33. Alveolar dead space
    Non-functional alveoli
  34. Total dead space
    Anatomical and alveolar
  35. Spirometer
    Measures volume changes during breathing
  36. Obstructive pulmonary disease
    Increased resistance to air flow
  37. Restrictive disorders
    Decrease in total lung capacity
  38. Minute respiratory volume
    Total volume flowing in and out in 1 minute
  39. Forced Vital Capacity
    Total volume exhaled after forceful exhalation of a deep breath
  40. Forced expiratory volume
    Volume measured in 1 second intervals
  41. Oxyhemoglobin
    Oxygen molecule bound
  42. Deoxyhemoglobin
    Oxygen unbound
  43. Hypoxia
    Below normal delivery of oxygen
  44. Carbaminohemoglobin
    CO2 binds to an amino acid on the polypeptide chains
  45. Haldane effect
    The less oxygenated blood is, the more CO2 it can carry
  46. Tissues
    As oxygen is unloaded, affinity for CO2 increases
  47. Lungs
    As oxygen is loaded, affinity for CO2 decreases allowing it to be released
  48. Carbonic anhydrase
    • Enzyme in RBC that catalyzes this reaction in both directions
    • Tissues - catalyzes formation of bicarbinate
    • Lungs - catalyzes formation of CO2
  49. Bohr effect
    Formation of bicarbonate leads to lower pH m and more unloading of oxygen to tissues
  50. Chloride shift
    Chloride ions move in opposite directions of the entering/leaving bicarbonate to prevent osmotic problems with RBC
  51. Carbonic acid
    • Bicarbonate buffer system 
    • More carbonic acid = more protons so lower pH
  52. Eupnea
    Normal resting breath rate
  53. Pneumotaxic center
    Slightly inhibits medulla, causes shorter, shallower, quicker breaths
  54. Apneustic center
    Stimulars the medulla, causes longer, deeper, slower breaths
  55. Hypothalamic control
    Emotion + pain to medulla
  56. Cortex controls
    Can override medulla as during singing or talking
  57. Hyperpnea
    Increases depth inhalation, not rate
  58. Steady state
    Increase in rate and depth gradually altered to match gas exchange needs
  59. Acclimatization
    Physiological adaptation to lower oxygen content at higher altitude
  60. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    • Almost all have smoking history
    • Dyspnea - chronic "gasping" for air
    • Frequent coughing and infections
    • Often leads to respiratory failure
  61. Obstructive emphysema
    • Usually results from smoking
    • Enlargement and deterioration of alveoli
  62. Chronic bronchitis
    Mucus/inflammation of mucosa
  63. Glomerulus
    Site of filtration of arterial blood
  64. Tubular reabsorption
    All the small things that we want to keep we reabsorb from the lumen of the renal tubule back into the blood stream
  65. Tubular secretion
    Unwanted molecules will go directly through/from the blood stream and directly into the urine
  66. Hydrostatic pressure
    Forces 1/5 of blood fluid through capillary walls into glomerular capsule
  67. Filtration membrane
    • Fenestrated capillary endothilium - prevents passage of blood cells
    • Basal membrane - allows most solutes but larger proteins
    • Visceral membrane of glomural capsule
  68. Renal autoregulation
    Rate of filtration production must be coordinated with reabsorption rate
  69. Myogenic mechanism
    Circular muscle around the glomerular arterioles reacts to pressure changes
  70. Tubuloglmerular feedback mechanism
    Macula dense cells sense the concentration of the filtrate
  71. Active tubular transport
    • Move across luminal surface by diffusion
    • Actively transported across basolateral membrane
    • Diffuse into capillary by diffusion
  72. Passive tubular reabsorption
    • Na+ driven into interstitial space actively
    • HCO3 and Cl- follow Na+ into the space
    • Obligatory water reabsorption - water follows ions into the interstitial space (osmosis)
    • Solvent drags - solutes will begin to move into tubule from filtrate, following water
  73. Nonreabsorbed substances
    • Urea, creatinine, uric acid because:
    • No carrier molecule for active transport
    • Not lipid-soluble
    • Too large
  74. Proximal tube
    • Closest to the glomural capsule
    • Almost all glucose and amino acids
    • 75-80% of water and Na+
    • Most active transport of ions
  75. Loop of Henle
    • Connects proximal and distal tubules
    • Regulates total water retained or lost:
    • Descending limb - water can return to blood vessels
    • Ascending limb - water impermeable but releases ions to the interstitial space
  76. Distal tubule and collecting duct
    Final passageway
  77. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    Causes increased permeability to Na+ and water, allow reabsorption
  78. Aldosterone
    Stimulate by renin-angiotensin, enhances Na+ reabsorption
  79. Atrial natriuretic factor
    Reduces Na+ permeability, less water
  80. Osmolarity
    Number of solute particles in 1 liter water
  81. Diuretics
    • Stimulate water loss
    • Alcohol
    • Caffeine
    • Na+ reabsorption blockers
  82. Renal clearance
    The rate at which the kidneys can remove a substance from the blood
  83. Intracellular fluid compartment
    Within the cells themselves
  84. Extracellular fluid compartment
    • Outside the cell
    • Plasma - fluid portion of the blood
    • Interstitial fluid - fluid bathing all cells and tissues of the body
  85. Regulation of Sodium balance
    • Released in response to:
    • Decreased blood pressure
    • decreased osmolarity of filtrate
    • sympathetic stimulation of juxtoglomerular calls
    • Function:
    • Increase Na+ reabsorption at distal tube
  86. Baroreceptors
    • Located in carotid arteries and aorta
    • Respond to changes in stretch due to blood pressure
  87. Atrial natriuretic factor
    • Released by cell of heart atria under high BP
    • Reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and Na+/water retention
  88. Steroid hormones
    • Estrogen - increases reabsorption of Na+ in distal conveluted tube
    • Glucocorticoids - Increases reabsorption of Na+ in distal tubes
  89. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    Chief control when Ca++ begins to decrease too low
  90. Calcitonin
    • Thyroid gland
    • Released when Ca++ begins to increase too high
  91. Innate or nonspecific system
    • External body membrane like skin and mucosae
    • -First line of defense, prevents physical entry of microorganisms, like locking the door
    • Phagocytes, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation
    • -Second line of defense, after passing first it activates all kind of generic responses that are non specific
  92. Adaptive or specific immunity
    • Third line of defense
    • Main components are B and T lymphocytes
    • B-lymphocytes involved in humoral or antibody mediated immunity
    • They take considerable time but are highley specific
  93. Innate defenses
    • Nonspecific
    • Combat pathogens which are harmful or disease-causing microorganisms
  94. Surface barriers
    • Skin
    • Mucous membranes
    • When surface barriers are breached by small nicks or cuts then the microorganisms invade deeper tissues and internal innate defenses are important
  95. Skin
    • Heavily keratinized epithelial membrane is a physical barrier
    • Sebum contains chemicals that are toxic to bacteria
  96. Mucous membrane
    Line all body cavities that open to the exterior including the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
  97. Internal Defenses
    • Nonspecific, consist of:
    • Phagocytes
    • Natural killer cells
    • Antimicrobial proteins
    • Fever
    • Inflammatory responses
  98. Phagocytes
    • Cells that engulf and eat pathogens
    • Mainly macrophages
    • Derived from monocytes which leave the bloodstream and enter tissue and enlarge
  99. Neutrophils
    • Most abundant type of blood cell
    • Can become phagocytic upon exposure in infectious material
    • Prolonged activity may cause normal tissues become cancerous
  100. Eosinophils
    • Weak phagocytes but are important against parasitic worms
    • Discharges destructive contents of cytoplasmic granules
  101. Mast cells
    Involved in allergies but have some phagocytic capabilities
  102. Pneumococcus
    Has a capsule which makes adherence (grab on) difficult
  103. Mechanisms of Phagocytosis
    • Amoeba-like digestion
    • Requires adherence of the particle to the phagocyte
    • Some pathogens can survive lysosomal enzymes and can multiply within
  104. Opsonization
    Coating of foreign particles with complement proteins and antibodies, increases adherence
  105. Natural killer cells
    • Are like nonspecific T cells
    • In blood and lymph
    • Can kill lyse cancer cells and virus infected body cells
    • Not phagocytic, but chemicals that will enhance inflammatory respones
  106. Inflammation
    • Triggered by body tissue injuries like physical trauma, heat, infections etc.
    • Main inflammatory mediators are histamines, kinins, prostaglandins, complement, and cytokines
  107. Inflammation functions
    • Prevents spread of damaging agents
    • Disposes of cell debris and pathogens
    • Sets stage of repair process
    • Increases permeability of local capillaries
  108. Cardinal signs of inflammation
    Redness, heat, swelling, pain and sometimes impairment of function.
  109. Exudates
    Fluid containing proteins like clotting factors and antibodies flow from bloodstream into tissue spaces
  110. Margination
    The process of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of neutrophils binding to CAMs called selectins of the endothelial cells of capillary walls causing the neutrophils to cling to the capillary wall.
  111. Diapedesis
    The process of neutrophils emigrating through capillary walls to the site of inflammation
  112. Chemotaxis
    The attraction of neutrophils and other white blood cells to the site of injury due to inflammatory chemicals called chemotactic agents
  113. Monocytes
    Become macrophages about 8-12 hours after entering the tissues. Macrophages are dominant at sites of chronic inflammation
  114. Pus
    A mixture of dead or dying neutrophils, broken down tissue cells, and living and dead pathogens
  115. Abcesses
    • Are sacs of pus walled off by collagen fibers
    • -Contains the pis in a bubble like thing
  116. Infection granulomas
    • Same as abscess but for macrophages
    • Are tumor like growths containing the macrophages infected by pathogens hiding within it surrounded by uninfected macrophages and an outer fibrous capsule
  117. Interferon
    Interferes with replication of viruses, not specific
  118. Complement system
    • Group of at least 20 plasma proteins that destroy foreign substances by lysis
    • Amplifies inflammatory process
  119. Fever
    • Body temp is controlled by hypothalamic neurons and is set to about 36 degrees C
    • High fever can denature enzymes
    • Occurs when pygrogens, secreted by leukocytes and macrophages are exposed to foreign matter