Test 1 Adolescent to Emerging adulthood

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Test 1 Adolescent to Emerging adulthood
2014-06-23 16:29:01

Test 1 Adolescent to Emerging adulthood
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  1. Who is G. Stanley Hall:
    • Father of scientific study of adolescence.
    • Known for "Storm and Stress" which means adolescence is by its very nature turbulent and full of conflict and mood swings.  
    • Theory of Recapitulation: argues each individual's development paralleled the development of the entire species
    • Ages 12-23
    • If we study one, we know all.
  2. What is the sociocultural view of adolescence?
    • Mead.  
    • Emphasis on environment, not biology.
    • cultures that emphasize smooth transition from childhood to adulthood won't have "storm & stress"
  3. What is Continuity-discontinuity issue?
    • The argument of how development progresses.
    • Continuity: development occurs gradually and continuously
    • Discontinuity:  Development is stage-like
  4. What are some gender differences in hormones in puberty
    • Girls produce 8x more estradiol (estrogen) boys produce 2x
    • Boys produce 20x more testosterone, girls produce 4x
    • Adrenarche
    • occurs usually between ages 6-9
    • in girls and 7-10 in boys, and apparently isn’t well understood yet, but is
    • when the adrenal glands start producing hormones. It actually occurs before the
    • onset of puberty.

    • Gonadarche follows adrenarche by 2 years. It involves the
    • maturation of primary sexual characteristics (testes and ovaries) and secondary
    • sexual characteristics (pubic hair, breast, genital development), and this is
    • when that HPG axis is activated
    • 10-11 age of boys
    • 9-10 non-Latino girls
    • 8-9 African American girls

    • Menarche
    • is the first menstrual period in girls

    • Spermarche is the first ejaculation of semen
    • in boys
  5. What are some cultural factors related to onset of menarche?
    • Negative view of menarche: some
    • think it can present danger to the growth of crops, the health of livestock,
    • and the success of hunters, so  In
    • many cultures menstruating women are restricted from food preparation and
    • consumption, social activities, religious practices, bathing, school
    • attendance, and sexual activities
    • Positive
    • view: Some cultures believe menstrual blood has positive powers—some see it as
    • promoting fertility, some use it in medical treatments, or in love potions
  6. What are risk factors for early vs. late maturation (onset of menarche)
    • Early:
    • more problems in school
    • more popular with boys
    • more satisfies with body image (early on)
    • more vulnerable to psychological problems (substance use, early sexual intercourse, delinquency, depression, sensitivity to interpersonal stress)
    • Girls: 
    • In general, become less satisfied with their bodies through puberty.
  7. What is Gonadarche and what happens during it?
    • Gonadarche follows adrenarche by 2 years. It involves the
    • maturation of primary sexual characteristics (testes and ovaries) and secondary
    • sexual characteristics (pubic hair, breast, genital development), and this is
    • when that HPG axis is activated
  8. What are Piaget's stages?
    • The sensorimotor stage: 0-2, is focused
    • on coordinating the activities of the senses with motor activities.

    The preoperational stage: 2-7, is when children become capable of symbolic thinking, such as the use of language, or using a broom to represent a horse.

    The concrete operations stage: 7-11, children focus on what can be experienced and manipulated in the environment. His example for this stage is that you can take a glass of water, pour it into a taller, thinner glass, and kids at this age will understand that the amount of water didn't change.

    • The formal operations stage begins at age 11 and lasts until about age 15 or 20. At
    • this age, children can use logical and systematic thinking, use reasoning, and
    • think scientifically. He called this hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Other
    • types of thinking also emerge at this stage– abstract thinking, ability to use
    • metaphors, and ability to use sarcasm.
  9. What are Piaget's notions regarding cognitive schemas-- Assimilation vs. accomodation
    • –Schema:  –A concept or framework that exists
    • in the individual’s mind to organize and interpret information

    –Assimilation:–The incorporation of new information  into existing knowledge

    ––Accommodation: An adjustment to new information, causing the schema to change

    • –Equilibration:–When adolescents experience
    • cognitive conflict, they resolve conflict to reach a balance Schema is the cognitive framework that a person uses to organize and interpret information.

    • Assimilation is the incorporation of new information into existing frameworks, which is similar to how an infant might adjust from breastfeeding from a mother to using
    • a nipple on a bottle to feed. Accommodation is the process of expanding your knowledge when the information is contrary to the schemas you have.
  10. What are Vygotsky's theories, zone of proximal development
    • Sociocultural Theory
    • Knowledge is distributed among people and their environments
    • Knowledge is constructed through social interaction
    • The Zone of proximal development is the gape between what adolescents can do on their own and what they are capable of doing if guided by an adult or someone more competent.  They learn best if their instruction is near the top of the zone.  Scaffolding refers to the degree of assistance provided to the adolescent within this zone.
  11. What are different types of attention
    Selective attention is focusing on a specific aspect of the experience while ignoring more irrelevant parts, such as focusing on one voice in a crowded room

    Divided attention is like multitasking, focusing attention on more than one thing at a time

    Sustained attention is the ability to maintain attention to something for a long period of time– staying focused

    Executive attention involves planning, monitoring, and dealing with unexpected circumstances to complete a task
  12. What are different types of thinking
    • Making decisions
    • thinking critically
    • thinking creatively
    • metacognition (thinking about thinking)
  13. What is Erikson's theories and what is identity development
    • Identity VS. Identity Confusion (5th developmental stage)
    • Psychosicoal moratiorium: the gap between childhood security and autonomy that adolescents experience as part of their identity exploration.
    • Personality and role experimentation:  deliberate effort to find place in world.
    • Contemporary views of identity:  development is a lengthy process.  physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development advance to the point at twhich the individual can sort throgh and synthesize childhood identites and identifications to construct a viable path toward adult maturity.  
  14. What are the four statuses of Identity
    • James Marcia
    • Identity diffusion: state of adolescence when they have not yet experienced an identity crisis
    • Identity Foreclosure:  State of adolescence when they have made a commitment but have not experienced an identity crisis.  
    • Identity moratorium:  State of adolescence when they are in the midst of an identity crisis, but have not made commitment to an identity
    • Identity achievement:  Adolescents who have undergone an identity crisis and made a commitment.   
  15. What are the four ethnic identity statuses
    • Assimilation: Leaving behind the ways of one's ethnic group and adopting the values and way of life of the majority culture 
    • Separation:  Associating only with member's of one's own ethnic group and rejecting the ways of the majority culture
    • Marginality: Rejecting one's culture of origin but also feeling rejected by the majority culture
    • Biculturalism: developing a dual identity
  16. What are the big 5 personality traits and what are they associated with?
    • Openness
    • -Imaginative or practical
    • -Interested in variety or routine
    • -Independent or conforming

    • Conscientiousness
    • -Organized or disorganized
    • -Careful or careless
    • -Disciplined or implsive

    • Extraversion
    • -socialble or retiring
    • -Fun-loving or somber
    • -affectionate or reserbed

    • Agreeableness
    • -softhearted or ruthless
    • -trusting or suspicious
    • -helpful or uncooperative

    • Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)
    • -Calm or anxious
    • -Secre or insecure
    • -Self-satisfied or self-pitying
  17. What are the temperament categories
    • Positive affect and approach:  This category is much like the personality trait of extroversion/introversion
    • Negative affectibity:  This involves being easily distressed.  Closely related to the personality trait of introversion and neuroticism
    • Effortful Control (self-regulation): This involves the ability to control one's emotions
  18. What type of studies can compare gene and environment influence?
    • One study found that individuals who have a short version of a genotype labeled 5-HTTLPR have an elevated risk of developing depression only if they also have stressful lives.  
    • Another study, adults who experiences parental loss as young children were more likely to have unresolved attachment as adults only when they had the short version of the 5-HTTLPR gene.
    • Another study, revealed that adolescents who experienced negative life events drank heavily only when they had a particular variation of the CRHR1 gene.
    • A recent study found that an interaction of a higher genetic plasticity index based on five gene variations and supportive parenting was linked to a higher level of adolescent self-regulation.
  19. What are the three leading causes of death in adolescence and emerging adulthood?
    • The three leading causes of death in adolescence and emerging adults are accidents, homicide and suicide.  
    • Almost half of all deaths from 15-24 are due to unintentional injuries approximately 3/4 of them involving vehicle accidents.  About 50% of motor accidents involving adolescents the driver has a blood alcohol level of 0.10% 
    • Homicide- African american males are three times more likely to be killed by guns than by natural causes.
    • Suicide- Since the 1950's suicide rates have tripled.  
  20. what are some facts about Plasticity in the brain?
    • Researchers have discovered that people can generate new brain cells throughout their lives in two brain regions, the hippocampus (memory) and the olfactory bulb (smell).  
    • In childhood and adolescence the brain has a remarkable ability to repair itself.
    • Rehbein left hemisphere was removed. The plasticity of the human brain was apparent as his right hemisphere reorganized itself to take over functions, such as speech, that normally take place in the left hemisphere.  
    • The brain retains considerable plasticity in adolescence, the earlier a brain injury occurs, the higher the likelihood of a successful recovery.
  21. What are some criticisms of Piaget?
    • Timing and nature- some cognitive abilities have been fond to emerge earlier than Piaget had thought. 
    • Neo-Piagetians- Piaget did not adequately focus on attention, memory, and cognitive strategies that adolescents use to process information, and that Piaget's explanations of cognitive changes are too general.  
  22. Different types of thinking?
    • Realistic and Pragmatic thinking- adults way of thinking changes. idealism decreases
    • Reflective and Relativistic Thinking- Adolescents view the world in polarities (right/wrong) adults move away from this thinking.The absolutist, dualistic thinking of adolescence give way to reflective, realivistic thinking of adulthood.  
    • Cognition and Emotion=emotional maturity 

    • Postformal thought is:  
    • reflective, relativistic, and contextual
    • Provisional
    • Realistic
    • Recognized as being influenced by emotion

    • Critical thinking
    • Creative thinking
    • Convergent thinking-a pattern of thinking in which individuals produce one correct answer
    • Divergent thinking- A pattern of thinking in which individuals produce many answers to the same question
  23. What are types of thinking errors adolescents make?
    • Imaginary audience- the aspect of adolescent egocentrism that involves attention-getting behavior-the attempt to be noticed, visible/onstage
    • Personal fable- part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescent sense of personal uniqueness and invulnerability.  Sense of personal uniqueness makes them feel that no one can understand how they really feel.  
  24. Self-esteem and what it's associated with?
    • Self-esteem (self-worth, self-image) is the global evaluative dimension of the self.  (good person/bad person) 
    • body image
    • narcissism
    • elem-middleschool
    • depression, eating disorders, delinquency, suicide.
  25. Risks associated with adolescent motherhood
    • Adolescent pregnancy creates health risks for baby and mom (preterm, low birth weight, neurological problems, childhood illness)
    • Mom drop out of school
  26. HIV/AIDS transmission
    • o  
    • Note that even if a partner is not lying
    • about HIV status according to a test, there is a window period for the HIV virus
    • that it may not result in a positive test for up to 6 months, so test results
    • cannot be considered accurate if a person has been sexually active within 6
    • months of being tested.
  27. What are the difficulties collecting accurate data on sexuality?
    • The individuals most likely to respond to sexual surveys are those with liberal sexual attitudes who engage in liberal sexual behaviors.  
    • Reluctance who answer candidly 
    • refuse to talk to strangers about sex
    • Give socially desirable answers.  
  28. What are some reasons girls give for having sex?
    • Male pressure
    • sex is a way to have a boyfriend
    • curiosity
    • sexual desire unrelated to loving and caring
  29. Who is at risk for sexual problems in adolescence?
    • Early sexual activity is linked with risky behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and school related problems.  
    • contextual factors such as socioeconomic stats and poverty, family/parenting and peer factors, and school-related influences.  Cognitive factors ie attention problems and self-regulation
  30. two types of sexual harassment
    • Quid pro quo sexual harassment- when a school employee threatens to base and educational decision on a student's submission to unwelcome sexual conduct.
    • Hostile environment sexual harassment- occurs when students are subjected to unwelcome sexual conduct that is so severe, persistent, or pervasive that it limits the students' ability to benefit from their education.  
  31. Sources of info about sex for adolescents.
    parents (decreases SAO, talk more with mothers), siblings, other relatives, schools, peers, magazines, television, internet.
  32. Factors influencing cheating
    • 60% of secondary school students said they have cheated on a test in the past year. 1/3 plagiarized info
    • reasons: high grades, time pressures, poor teaching, lack of interest.  
  33. College students' values over time
    • Over the past three decades, traditional-aged college students have shown an increased concern for personal well-being and a decreased concern for the well-being of others, especially for the disadvantaged.  
    • Today's freshmen are more strongly motivated for money than to develop a meaningful philosophy of life then were their counterparts of 20 or even 10 years ago.  
  34. Kolberg stage 1
    • Heteronomos Mortality
    • Individuals pursue their own interests but let others do the same.  What is right involves equal exchange
  35. Kohlberg stage 2
    • Individualism, Purpose, and exchange
    • Children obey because adults tell them to obey.  People base their moral decisions on fear of punishment
  36. Kohlberg stage 3
    • Mutual Interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
    • Individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis for moral judgments.
  37. Kohlberg stage 4
    • Social System Morality
    • Moral judgments are based on understanding and the social order, law, justice, and duty
  38. Kohlberg stage 5
    • Social contract or utility and individual rights
    • Individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergrid or transcend the law
  39. Kohlberg stage 6
    • Universal Ethical Principles
    • The person has developed moral judgement that are based on universal human rights. When faced with a dilemma between law and conscience, a personal, individualized conscience is followed. 
  40. Gilligan's theory of moral development and how it differs from Kohlberg
    • Gilligan argues for a care perspective.  
    • Kohlberg (gender bias)
  41. Hormones involved in puberty and what do they do
    • Androgens (male) testosterone is an androgen-physical changes
    • Estrogen (Female)