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end Permian mass extinction
- 90%-96% of all marine species
- 70% terrestrial families (tetrapods and insects)
- transition to modern fauna
- amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
- known from the late Devonian
- 1st terrestrial vertebrates
arguments for ectothermy in Dinosaurs
- lack of nasal turbinates (nasal bones covered in vascular tissues): All homeotherms have turbinates.
- oxy16-18 contaminated by ground water
- bone growth rates: Some dinosaurs have lamellarzonal laminae, as seen in ectotherms
- high latitudes: (seasonal migration)
- scaley: Ectotherms are generally scaley, but so are birds: Feathers are modified scales.
- Dinosaurs were quite large: Large endotherms such as land mammals and whales have problems with heat.
first vertebrates capable of active flight
Pterosaurs evolved from
- a small bipedal archosaur (Late Triassic)
- got quite large
Pterosaurs went extinct in the __ period.
diet of Pterosaurs
piscivorous (fish eaters)
ammonites: phylum and class
Ammonites became extinct in the __ period
Ray finned fish diversified in the __ period with major radiation in the __
early Triassic; Tertiary
Mesozoic marine revolution
- restructuring of marine benthic communities from the Permian with major diversification of predator-prey relations
- Decapods (crabs) evolved specialized claws and gastropods evolved ornamented shells.. "Mesozoic arms race"
- reef builders: Sceractinian corals (late Trias-Rec)
- loss of crinoids and brachiopods (the Paleozoic fauna)
- Bivalves diversified
Mesozoic marine animals
- ray finned fish
- decapods with specialized claws
- reef builders
Mesozoic marien reptiles
- sea turtles
- crocodilians (model for dinosaurs)
- ichthyosaurs (live birth)
- plesiosaurs (largest predators)
- mosasarus (good swimmers; ate fish)
- angiosperms: flowering plants
- evolved in the late Cretaceous
- (dominate plants of the Cenozoic)
- huge influence on ecology of browsers and grazers