Carpentry 2 Framing Systems
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Name the five systems used for wood frame construction.
- 1. Platform
- 2. Balloon
- 3. Post and beam
- 4. Pole construction
- 5. Structural Insulated Panels (SIP)
What is the distinguishing feature of western platform framing?
The floor is framed and sheathed independent of the walls and provides a flat work surface.
What acts as fire stops in platform framing?
The wall plates
What is the disadvantage of using solid lumber floor joists in platform framing?
In balloon framing, how high do the wall studs extend in a 2 story building?
Each stud is toenailed to the sillplate and is continuous from the sillplate to the roof rafters
How are floors supported in balloon framing?
- The main floor rests on the foundation mudsill.
- Upper floors are nailed to the side of the studs and rest on a let-in (notched) ribbon.
What is the major advantage of balloon framing?
Has minimal shrinkage
Why can framing members in post and beam construction be spaced farther apart than in platform and balloon framing?
The larger framing members are able to support greater loads.
Why is thicker roof sheathing required for post and beam construction?
Roof beams are spaced farther apart and thicker sheathing is needed to reduce its deflection.
What is the interior and exterior finish attached to in post and beam construction?
Frame stud walls are erected between posts to supply a means of attachment for the interior and exterior wall finishes.
What functions do the poles serve in pole construction?
The pole acts as a foundation for the building
Why are structural insulated panels ideally suited for exterior walls.
The polyurethane foam core has excellent insulation properties.
What is the maximum allowable moisture content for framing lumber?
The maximum is 19%.
In the platform system, which framing member is used to support loads that occur over openings in walls?
In balloon framing, how are roof and floor loads transferred to the foundation?
- Directly by wall studs.
- Upper story floor loads are transferred to the studs by a let-in ribbon.
- The studs then transfer the loads to the foundation.
What do the two upper plates of the wall do?
The top and cap plate strengthen the upper portion of the wall
When can a single top plate be used?
If the joist or rafter bearing on it are directly over or within 50mm (2 inches) of the edge of the wall stud.
Where are lintels (headers) used?
Above windows and doors
Where are cripple studs used?
- The shortened studs are used between the window sill and the bottom plate.
- They can also be used between the lintel and top plate.
What are the 4 common stud spacings?
- 1. 16 inches (400mm)
- 2. 12 inches (300mm)
- 3. 19.2 inches (490mm)
- 4. 24 inches (600mm)
What are precision and trimmed studs (PETS)?
Studs precut to a standard length intended to be used with 2 top plates and a single bottom wall plate.
How much can a house shrink per floor?
Half an inch/floor
When must additional blocking be installed in balloon framing?
If the studs exceed 3m in length, it stiffens the wall and acts as a fire stop.
What kind of studs should be used for load-bearing walls?
Stud, standard, or #2 grade
What kind of studs should be used for non load-bearing walls?
Stud, utility, or #3 grade or better
When does material shrinkage have the greatest effect?
When placed on edge.
How can shrinkage affect pole construction?
Can affect diameter of the poles and lag bolts should be used to minimize problems
Does moisture and shrinkage affect SIPs?
What does sheathing do in platform framing?
Prevents the studs from bowing or buckling when loads are applied.
If a floor joist or roof truss lands over the opening, the weight must be supported by a ______.
What kind of wall has very little resistance to lateral (side) loads?
Knee or pony wall
What kind of walls are most susceptible to wind load?
- Pole frame and stud wall buildings
- (forces are much greater for fully enclosed buildings of this type than for similar buildings with open sides)
What are the 3 methods for wind resistance in open ended buildings?
- 1. Structural knee braces combined with the pole frame.
- 2. Over sized poles of sufficient strength
- 3. An external bracing system (Every 12-20m, 40-60ft, is adequate for most buildings)
How is resistance to the wind provided by platform and balloon framing?
- Provided by the sheathing.
- If no sheathing on wall, code requires at least 1x4 notched into the studs at a 45 degree angle from top to bottom.
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