Muromonab-CD3 (mechanism, use) antibody to CD3; used in acute transplant rejection
Digoxin Immune Fab(mechanism, use) antibody to digoxin; used as antidote to digoxin intoxication
Rasburicase (mechanism, use) Recombinat version of Urate oxidase, breaks uric acid down into allantoin; use in tumor lysis syndrome and gout
denosumab(mechanism, use) monoclonal anitbody that binds to RANKL and prevents its interaction with RANK, inhibiting osteoclasts; decreases bone loss in bone mets
What keeps heparin from crossing the placental barrier? It's high water solubility. Things with a high lipid solubility (unconjugated bilirubin) tend to cross the placenta while things with high water solubility(conjugated bilirubin) tend to not. binds albumin = probably lipid soluble
cyclosporine(mechanism, use, toxicity) Used in transplant anti-rejected, treatment of graft-vs-host disease, and psoriasis; binds calineurin on T cells, stopping IL2 from being expressed, lowering T cell response; nephtrotox and lymphomma risk
Isotretinoin, tretinoin, Acitretin(mechanism,use,toxicity a retinoid that has immunomodulatory effects, binds nuclear receptors; psorisias and acne; severe teratogen
Calcipotrol(mechanism, use) vitamin D analog; used in topical psoariasis treatment
Orlistat(mechanism, use) Inhibits intestinal lipase, decreasing fat absorption; used to treat obesity
giving what drug 30 minutes before Niacin can help reduce flushing? aspirin. Niacin increases prostaglandin D2. release. asprin blocks this release = lower flushing
Paclitaxil or sirolimus are commonly used in cardiac stents. why? Prevent growth of intima by inhibiting cellular growth = no restenosis
What is the drug used for Pre-eclampsi and ecplamsia? IV magnesium sulfate for seizures
Bortezomib(mechanism,use, toxicity) Protease inhibitor, proteases are overactive in some cancers and can destroy pro-apototic proteins; used in multiple myeloma; peripheral neuropathy
What causes nitroprusside toxicity? What is the antidote? Nitroprusside degrades into cyanide. Give thiosulfide to inactivate.
Memantine(mechanism, use, toxicity) blocks NMDA-type glutamate receptors; used in alzheimers; confusion
What vitamin is used in alzheimer's treatment? Vitamin E (generic name is alpha-tocopherol)
In gas anesthesias, what is the lipid solubility and the blood solubility? Lipid solubility = potency (MAC). Blood solubility = speed of induction.
Calcitrol, calcipotriene, tacalcitol (mechanism, use) topical vitamin D analogs, activate nuclear receptors that inhibit keratinocyte proliferation and enhance keratinocyte differentiation; psoriasis
Usetekinumab(mechanism, use) monoclocal antibody that binds IL-12 and IL-12 thus inhibiting activation of Th1 cd4+ t cells; used in psoriasis
Why is it required to wait 14 days after stoping a MAO-i before starting an SSRI? MAO-inhbitors (phenelzine) inactive the MAO-I enzymes. It takes 2 weeks for them to get re-synthesized. If both SSRI and MAO-I are active at the same time, serotonin syndrome could occur
Lepirudin, Bivalirudin (mechanism, use) from leeches, inhibit thrombin; used as an alternative to heparin in HIT.
Ropinirole, Pramipexole (mechanism, use) are D2 agonists that DON'T need to be activated like l-dopa does; used in parkinsons and restless leg syndrome
what are the uses of amantidine for parkinsons? indirect and direct D agonist, also some anticholingergic functions which reduces tremors
What compound can cause sickling of sickle cell trait RBC's? sodium metabisulite, found as a food additive and sanitizer
How do atypical antipsychotics avoid causing parkinson's symptoms and tardive dyskinesia? They act on D4 instead of D2 receptors -> no risk of tardive dyskinesia or parkinson's like symptoms
Which anti-inflammatories will not impair platlet aggregation? why? Celecoxib. It only impairs COX2. COX1 is predominate in platlets.
Natalizumab(mechanism, use, toxicity) binds alpha-4 integrin, which blocks movement of WBC into orgrans;used in crohns and MS; can cause PML and hepatotoxicity.
What drugs are preferred in medication induced parkinson's treatment? why? Anti-muscarinics (Benzotropine). Giving dopamine agonists would exacerbate psychosis.
What defines induction and potency in gas anesthetics? induction = lower solubility in blood, quicker induction. potency = higher with higher lipid solubility =1/MAC.