microbio final

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sh3ilamarie
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275140
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microbio final
Updated:
2014-05-23 04:38:41
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microbio wirght
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microbio
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chapter 13,16,17
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  1. Virus
    Non-cellular entities which consist mainly of protein and nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and which can replicate only after entry into specific living cells
  2. Host range
    The spectrum of host cells that each type of virus can infect. it is determined by specific host attachment sites and cellular factors
  3. Virion
    a complete viral particle
  4. Phage
    virus that infects a bacterial cell
  5. General Characteristics of Viruses
    • Obligatory intracellular parasites
    • Contain DNA or RNA
    • No ribosomes
    • No ATP-generating mechanism
    • Contain a protein coat
    • No metabolism and, few or no enzymes of their own.
    • No intrinsic motility.
    • Cannot grow on artificial lab media.
    • Do not respond to physical stimuli in their environment
    • Some viruses are enclosed by an envelope
    • Some viruses have spikes
    • Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in one host
  6. General Structural Properties of Viruses
    • Polyhedral (many sided) Viruses
    • Helical Viruses 
    • Enveloped Viruses
    • Complex Viruses 
    • Bacterial viruses
  7. Polyhedral (many sided) Viruses
    Many animal, plant, and bacterial viruses are icosahedron (with 20 faces and 12 corners).
  8. Helical Viruses
    Resemble long rods that may be rigid or flexible.
  9. Enveloped Viruses
    Have a roughly spherical but somewhat variable shape even though their nucleocapsid can either be icosahedral or helical
  10. Complex Viruses
    Many bacterial viruses have capsid symmetry that is neither purely icosahedral nor helical. They may possess tails and other structures or have complex, multilayered walls surrounding the nucleic acid
  11. Virion Structure
    • Virion is an infectious viral particle
    • Nucleic acid
    • DNA or RNA Never both
    • Circular or linear DNA
    • Or single or double stranded RNA
    • Capsid
    • Capsomeres
    • Envelope
    • Spikes
  12. DNA viruses
    • Papillomavirus 
    • Adenovirus
  13. RNA Viruses
    • Influenza virus 
    • Paramyxoviruses -Mumps
  14. Capsid
    (nucleocapsid) is composed of protein subunits called Capsomeres
  15. envelope
    consists of combination of lipids, proteins, and CHO, an outer membranous layer surrounding the nucleoapsid
  16. naked virus or nonenveoped virus
    virus without envelope
  17. Capsomeres
    protein subunits that make capsids
  18. Spikes
    A receptor on the surface of certain enveloped viruses that facilitates specific attachment to the host cellAre CHO and protein complex Can be used as means of identification.Cause clumping of RBC called Hemagglutination
  19. Plaques
    a visible structure formed within a cell culture, such as bacterial cultures within some nutrient medium (e.g. agar). The bacteriophage viruses replicate and spread, thus generating regions of cell destructions
  20. Oncogenes
    A gene that when activated can transform normal cells into cancerous cells
  21. Agents that can activate oncogenes
    • high-energy radiation
    • mutagenic chemicals 
    • some viruses
  22. Protooncogenes
    Normal cellular genes that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation that can become oncogenes.
  23. Growing Viruses
    Viruses must be grown in living cellsBacteriophages form plaques on a lawn of bacteriaAnimal viruses may be grown in living animals or in embryonated eggs or in cell cultures (continuous cell lines)
  24. multiplication of viruses
    • lytic cycle
    • lysogenic cycle
  25. Lytic cycle
    lysis and death of host cell
  26. Lysogenic cycle
    • Host cell does not die 
    • Viral DNA incorporates into host cell DNA 
    • Virus remains latent
  27. steps of lytic cycle (lysogenic cycle)
    • Attachment
    • Penetration
    • Biosynthesis -production of phage or viral DNA and proteins
    • Maturation - DNA and capsids are assempled
    • Release - plasma membrane breaks open releasing virions
  28. Release of Bacteriophages
    • Eclipse period
    • Burst size 
    • Burst time
  29. Virus species
    • Adenovirus
    • Papillomavirus
    • Paramyxoviruses
    • Influenza virus
    • Bacteriophages
    • herpesvirus
  30. Prions
    tiny pieces of protein (infecious protein)
  31. Disease by prions are caused by
    Inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant, and surgical instruments
  32. Diseases caused by prions
    • Spongiform encephalopathies: sheep scrapie
    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    • Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome
    • Fatal familial insomnia
    • Mad cow disease
    • - there is no treatment
  33. Susceptibility
    lack of resistance to disease
  34. Immunity
    ability to ward off disease
  35. Innate
    nonspecific or any pathogen
  36. Adaptive
    specific pathogen & long lasting
  37. Innate Physical Factors
    epidermis, keratin, mucous membranes, ciliary escalator
  38. Chemical Factors
    fungistatic sebum-oily skin, low pH, lysozyme, gastric juice, vaginal secretions
  39. antagonism
    compete with pathogens
  40. commensal
    one microbe benefits and the other is unharmed
  41. Neutrophils Macrophages
    phagocytosis
  42. Basophiles
    Histamine, triggers inflammation
  43. Eosinophils
    kill parasites
  44. Monocytes
    single nuclei
  45. Dendritic
    branching
  46. natural killer cells
    targeted, cancerous tissue
  47. T-cells
    cell mediated immunity, supress or amplify
  48. B cells
    antibodies
  49. platelets
    clotting
  50. lymphatic
    source of T cell creation
  51. phagocytosis
    ingestion
  52. acute phase proteins
    complement, kinins
  53. vasodilation
    prostaglandins
  54. phagocyte migration
    inflammatory response allows phagocytic wbc's to leave vessels and attack pathogens
  55. Complement system
    serum proteins, antigen antibody reaction, C3b opsonization
  56. opsonization
    makes the antigen more susceptible to phagocytosis
  57. cytolsis
    bursting of cells
  58. Attract
    phagocytes
  59. Evade Complement
    capsules, surface lipid carbs, enzymatic digestion
  60. Interferons (IFNs)
    IFN-a and IGN-B, antiviral proteins
  61. Gamma IFN
    phagocytize bacteria
  62. Physical Factors
    lacrimal, saliva, urine, vaginal secretions
  63. Lacrimal
    tears
  64. saliva
    washes microbes off
  65. Epidermis
    consist of tightly packed cells with keratin
  66. keratin
    a protective main component in hair
  67. mucus
    traps microbes
  68. Ciliary escalator
    microbes trapped in mucus are transported away from the lungs
  69. Lysozyme
    in perspiration and urine
  70. Adaptive Immunity
    acquired naturally or artificially specific and have memory
  71. Natural Adaptive Immunity
    an organism or toxin enters the body and produces an immune response
  72. Artificial Adaptive Immunity
    results from immunization by a vaccine
  73. Specific Component
    protects against one pathogenonly exception when two are closely related
  74. Memory Component
    much stronger immune response upon reexposurelong term immunity
  75. Two AI Responses
    • Antibody mediated responses 
    • Cell Mediated Response
  76. Antibody Mediated Response
    • AKA: Humoral Response
    • Ab specifically bind to and inactivate foreign particles
  77. Cell Mediated Response
    trigger T lymphocytesrecognize and destroy abnormal/infected host cells
  78. antigen
    foreign particle that enters the bodycan be broken into epitopes
  79. antibodies
    • Protein produced in response to Ag
    • like lock and key
    • 2 light chains and 2 heavy chains
    • 2 antigen bonding sites
  80. 5 Classes of Antibodies
    • IgG
    • IgM
    • IgA
    • IgD
    • IgE
  81. IgG
    • most common
    • found in blood and can enter tissues
    • can cross the placenta: confers passive immunity to fetus
    • binds antigens very strongly
  82. IgM
    • pentamer
    • stay in blood
    • aggregate antigens
    • 1st produced
  83. IgA
    • dimer
    • found in body secretions
    • protects gastrointestinal tract of newborns
  84. IgE
    • found on mast cells and basophils
    • triggers release of histamine
  85. Antibody involved in allergies
    Immunoglobulin E
  86. Functions of Antibodies
    • Agglutination
    • Neutralization Complement
    • Activation
    • Opsonization
    • Ab Dependent Cytotoxicity
  87. Agglutination
    Ag stuck togetherreduces number of infectious units to be dealt with
  88. Neutralization
    Ab binds to Ag and inactivates itprevents it from adsorbing to host cells
  89. Complement Activation
    Ab binds bacteria and starts complement pathway(MAC Attack)
  90. Opsonization
    flags down phagocytes to destroy cell
  91. Ab Dependent Cytotoxicity
    flags down immune system cells to destroy antigens too big for phagocytosis
  92. Types of Lymphocytes
    • B- Lymphocytes 
    • T-Lymphocytes
  93. B-Lymphocytes
    • Ab producing cells
    • involved in humoral response
  94. T-Lymphocytes
    • Helper T-cells
    • Cytotoxic T-cells-destroy abnormal body cells
    • cell mediated response
  95. Antigen Presenting Cells
    macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells
  96. Major Histocompatibilty Complex
    antigens presented to MHC to decide if they are dangerous or not
  97. Clonal Selection
    • B cells circulate until they find antigenspresent to MHC
    • MHC says its dangerous 
    • Th cells activate B cells- which undergo clonal expansion
  98. Clonal Expansion
    • B cell differentiates into plasma cells(Ab cells) and memory cells
    • memory cell are long living and if they encounter the antigen again will initiate a quick response
  99. Primary Response
    • B cells produce low levels of Ab
    • 7-14 days
    • IgM first, then IgG and IgA
    • memory built
  100. Secondary Response
    • 2nd encounter
    • high levels of Ab1-2 days
    • memory cells replenished
  101. Cytotoxic T Cells
    destroy abnormal human cells
  102. Dendritic Cells
    engulfs foreign antigens and present to a different MHC
  103. Active Immunization
    • long lasting immunity
    • natural- body encounters Ag 
    • Artificial- Ag as a vaccine
  104. Passive Immunization
    • temporary immunity
    • Natural- mother to infant
    • Artificial- Ab injected(for life threatening situations snakebite)

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