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Casual and Social Groups
Casual and social groups include neighborhood groups, fraternities, gangs and even classmates. The impact of these relationships on behavior are quite profound.
Communication networks are the five patterns of communicating between group members, which include the wheel, chain, Y, circle, and all-channel network.
The Chain can readily be seen to represent the hierarchical pattern that characterizes strictly formal information flow, "from the top down," in military and some types of business organizations. If you are a part of a chain network, members communicate with each other in a pre-planned sequence. An example of a chain network is an assembly-line group. In an assembly line, employees only communicate with those whose work precedes or follows their own. Like wheel networks, chain networks do not exist in teams.
If you are in a wheel network, information flows from one central member of the group to the rest of the members. Other group members may not have to communicate with each other to perform well. An example would be a group of independent makeup consultants who report to one regional mentor. The independent makeup consultants do not need to interact with one another in order to perform. Wheel networks do not exist in teams, since teams signify intense interaction between all members of a group.
The All-Channel network, which is an elaboration of Bavelas's Circle used by Guetzkow, is analogous to the free-flow of communication in a group that encourages all of its members to become involved in group decision processes.
Y networks or star networks are lines of communication used to pass information serially from one person to another with help of a hub or central node.
If you are in a circle network, members communicate if they share something in common, such as experiences, beliefs, areas of expertise, background or office location. For example, the people who you may informally socialize with in your office area may be a part of your circle network. Circle networks are not described as teamwork.
Educational groups are groups that interact for the sole purpose of study or instruction.
Primary groups are groups that usually include one's family and closest friends. They influence self-concept as well as personality from childhood to adulthood.
Problem-solving groups are task-oriented groups that form in order to solve one or more problems.
Types of Discussion Questions
Questions of fact (pi, 3.14), questions of definition (what is murder? what is rape?), questions of value (ford or chevy?), and questions of policy (when new models come prices go down, buy display).
Seating patterns often affect the type and volume of interaction in a group. Various seating patterns include side-by-side, distance-opposite, and side-to-end.
The word territoriality was coined by Henry Hall and defined as "the tendency for humans and other animals to lay claim to and defend a particular area or territory."
Work groups are the formations of people on the job.
As group size increases, the potential number of interactions increases.
When there's too many people in a group social loafing occurs, which is the decreased effort of each individual member in the group.
What are Forsynth's guidelines to minimize social loafing?
(1) Increase personal involvement, (2) Minimize free riding, and (3) Clarifying goals.
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