What 4 factors are used to determine the minimum allowable stud size for a building?
Type of wall (interior or exterior)
Unsupported wall height
What is the purpose of trimmers or jack studs?
Trimmers or jack studs are nailed to a regular stud and, as a unit, they are the vertical structural members that transfer the load from the lintel to the floor system below.
What is the minimum end bearing for a lintel?
1 1/2" (38 mm)
Where are cripple studs placed in a wall frame?
Use below or above openings in walls
What is commonly used to provide anchorage and backing where two walls intersect?
L posts are used at wall intersections
The blueprints show a section view of a conventionally framed wall. The ceiling height is specified as 97 1/8". What length of stud is needed?
Stud length will be 92 5/8"
(97 1/8" - 4 1/2" (three plates) = 92 5/8")
If there are irregularities in the floor frame, how far may the wall plates overhang the floor?
The wall plate may overhang the floor by up to 1/3 the width of the plate.
Why is it desirable to have the wall studs occur directly over the floor joists?
This provides better load transfer and minimizes problems with plumbing and ductwork.
Why are door and window rough openings larger than the finished unit size?
This allows for insulation and leveling of the window or door.
What is the first step in laying out rough openings?
Begin laying out the rough opening by marking the centreline of the rough opening on the plates.
A window rough opening is 712mm (28") wide. What is the cutting length of the lintel?
The lintel cutting length is 788 mm (31")
(lintel span + thickness of two trimmers)
Review Lintel Span Tables in the National Building Code.
What determines the length of a trimmer?
Vertical height from the sole plate to the underside of the lintel
What determines the length of a rough sill?
Length is same as the width of the window rough opening
What are 2 alternatives to using an L post where a partition intersects an exterior wall?
If wall studs are laid out (sheathing flush with the end of the wall) at 16" on-centre, what is the measurement to the edge of the first stud?
When laying out regular studs, what must be done where a rough opening occurs?
If a stud occurs within a rough opening, the layout marks must be changed from an X to a C to show that a cripple stud is placed at this location.
According to the National Building Code, what length and quantity of nails are needed to end nail wall plates and studs together?
Two 82 mm (3 1/4") long nails are required at each end of the stud.
When assembling the wall frame, what is done to the studs prior to placing them on the layout marks?
Sight down the edge of the stud to determine which way it is crowned. Place all the studs with the crowned edge up.
What is usually done with cap plates at corners and partition intersections?
Cap plates are lapped at corners and partition intersections
Once the wall frame is assembled, what must be done before sheathing is applied?
Position the wall so that the sole plate is aligned to the chalk line marked on the subfloor.
Tack the sole plate to the subfloor to keep the wall straight.
Move the top of the wall back and forth until both diagonal measurements are identical (when this occurs the wall is square)
Tack the cap plate down to keep the wall from moving.
How is sheathing started if a long side wall is framed first?
Sheathing is started flush with the end of the wall.
On short side walls, the sheathing should project past the framing by how much?
It will project past the framing by the thickness of the side wall
What is the nailing pattern for applying wall sheathing?
Fasten the sheathing to the framing members, using nails (min. 51mm (2")) or staples (min. 38mm (1 1/2")) placed at least 150 mm (6") o.c. along edges and every 300 mm (12") o.c. along intermediate supports.
After an exterior wall is erected, what is done to the sole plate?
Starting at one end, position the sole plate on the chalk line.
Straighten the wall plate by aligning it to the chalk line and nail the plate to the floor frame.
What are some distinguishing features of a rake wall?
Sloping top plate and
studs that are cut on an angle at their top
When building interior walls, what problem may result if all the short partitions are erected first?
If all the short partitions are erected first, there may be no space left to assemble the long wall.
What is a non-loadbearing partition?
Supports no load other than its own weight.
If a non-loadbearing wall runs parallel to the floor joists, how must it be supported?
Must occur directly on a joist or be supported by blocking between the joists.
If the partitions have an insulated ceiling above them what must be placed between the top and cap plates during assembly?
A 400 mm (16") strip of polyethylene vapour barrier
What method is used to straighten the top of a wall?
String line and feeler blocks are used to straighten the tops of walls
What is the best way to secure the bottoms of wall braces?
Nail the bottom of the braces to a block that has been attached to the floor joists.
If a stud in a loadbearing wall must be notched, how much solid lumber must be left?
At least 2/3 of the width of the stud must be undamaged.
Why would a plumbing wall be constructed with 2 x 6 studs rather than 2 x 4 studs?
A wider wall is needed to accommodate plumbing drains and vent stacks.
What may be used to provide anchorage for a stair handrail?
Backing or blocking may be placed in the wall to provide solid anchorage for stair handrails.
Describe a girth.
Blocking placed between the studs to stiffen the wall.
When framing walls, what consideration must be made for the application of drywall?
Adequate backing must always be provided for the attachment of drywall.
Why is a 400mm (16") strip of polyethylene placed between the top and cap plates and the exterior wall and partitions?