which of the following substances increases the amount of glucose available in the blood?
Norepinephrine, Glucagon , Epinephrine
Pituitary gland secretes what
pancreas secretes what?
Insulin and glucagon
Thyroid gland secrets what?
Adrenal glands secrets what?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Epinephrine targets where?
heart, blood vessels, brain and lungs
Insulin targets what?
adipose tissue and muscle cells
Growth hormone targests what?
____ immunity does not require a previous encounter with a pathogen
Identify the nutrients that play a role in immune health
Vitamin B12, Folate and Vitamin A
An individual and HIV and incresed risk of food borne illness, famine and increased rate of infections, impaired wound healing due to citamin c deficiency are all part of nutritional staus that affects...
immunoglobulins are also known as ..
A deficiency of __ ___ __ negatively affects skin health.
niacin, essential fatty acids, zinc
Bacterial eye infections are common in developing countries , often as a result of a deficiency of which nutrient?
Intestinal cells form an important barrier to invading microorganisms by 1. 2. 3.
Forming a mucosal layer, producing immunoglobulins, being packed closely together
In the intestinal cells, what binds to invading microorganisms and prevents them from entering the bloodstream
Diarrheal disease can result from deficiencies of...
Protein, zinc and vitamin a
this worsens nutritional status
True or false : adequate nutrition is necessary to protect the health of the intestinal tract
____ is a packaging site for proteins used in the cytoplasm or exported from the cell
The Golgi Complex
enzymes are made of
Lingual Lipase and Salivary amylase are two components of the liquid called___, which is produced by glands in the mouth
Lymph contains what three parts?
Plasma, dietary fats, white blood cells
Vitamins and minerals suppport metabolism by..
contributing to enzyme activity
when a nutrient requires a carrier protein and energy in order to be absorbed, this is called
which of the following are involuntary processes? chewing, absorption, breathing, swallowing?
the primary treatment for gallstones is
surgical removal of the gallbladder
In contrast to the small intestine, the large intestine...
lacks villi, has increased bacterial action, lacks digestive enzymes (the large intestine is NOT longer in length)
what are the main organelles?
Nucleus, Mitochondrion, Lysosomes, Perioxisomes, Rough/Smooth ER, Cell Membrane, golgi aparatus
The large intestine primary absorbes...
potassium and sodium
The stomach primary absorbes
some alcohol ( about 20%)
The small intestine primarily absorbes
glucose, vitamins, bile acids
List the organs of digestive tract in order, from start to finish.
Mouth, Esophagus, stomach , small intestine, large intestine.
List the necessary nutrients to protect the health of the intestinal tract.
Folate, Vitamin c, protein
The chemical breakdown of starch that occurs in the mouth is due to the enzyme action of ..
Pepsin breaks down...
Identify the organs that work together to maintain the acid-base balance of the blood
name roles of the endocrine system
maintain water balance
plays a mojor role in the regulation of metabolism
Fat-soluble nutrients are absorbed into the
involved in hunger regulation,
released in times of stress,
Kidneys, bladder, ureters make up the .... system
why would drinking milk and cream not be good treatment for the relief of ulcer pain
Calcium in milk and cream stimulates acid production
There is very little absorption of nutrients in the stomach except for some...
What cellualar structure houses DNA
The large vein that carries blood containig absorbed nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract directly to the liver for metabolism before nutrients are circulated to the rest of the body is known as...
Increasing fiber and fluid consumption is adequate to correct mild cases of
Two organs the produce most of the digestive enzymes
Pancreas and the small intestine
___ are the chemical messengers of the boyd
True of False: Hormones are available only to certain receptor proteins
Carbohydrates three main functions?
Cell to celll communication, immune defense, cellular identity
Transporting absorbed nutrients to the liver to be processed before being released into the general bloodstream is referred to as
The brain relies on __for energy
The excahnge of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the blood and the cells throughout the body occurs accross the cells lining the....
The role of benefical bacteria in the large intetine is to ...
metabolize undigested food
make vitamin k and biotin
Identify genetic variations that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
A delay in the removal of cholesterol from the blood, high levels of homocysteine in the blood
True or false: for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, insoluble fiber is more effective than soluble fiber.
___ metabolism can take place in the cytoplasm of the cell,
___ metabolism take place in the mitochondria
Peroxisomes contain the enzyme __ which neutralizes hydrogen peroxide in the cell.
What type of nutrients are absorbed into the hepatic portal vein and eventually to the liver before they enter the general circulation
__ soluble nutrients enter the lymph system whereas __ soluble nutrients enter portal circulation
fat / water
A compartment, particle, or filament that performs a specialized function whitin a cell is an
what are funcions of the cardiovascular system?
Deilvering hormones to target cells
facilitating the exchange of oxygen
Amylase is the enzyme needed to digest....
Bile is stored in the
The site of most nutrient absorption is in the
True or flase: the cell membrane is a lipid bilayer of phospholipids
what are functions of the urinary system?
maintating proper fluid balance
removing unneeded substances from the blood
Enterohepatic circulation refers to the absorption of components of.... follwed by
bile from the small intestine, follwed by transport via the portal vein to the liver
Act that banned increases in insurance based on genes
Genetic information nondiscrimination act
The storage form of glucose in the body is
Hormones bind to a receptor on a ___ target tissue
Hormones act on target tissues that are ___ from the site of hormone production in the body
People with ulcers shoudl refrain from the use of NSAIDS because the reduce the ___ secreted by the stomach
In those with celiac disease, exposure to ___ causes the villi of the small intestine to flatten
The junction between the lymphatic system and the cardiovascular system is located near the
T/F: cells need water, building supplies, and chemical regualtors to function properly
waves of muscular contractions that propel food along the gastrointestinal tract are called
___ are organelles that digest worn-out or damaged cell components
Identify the roles that protein plays in the cell maembrane
It provides structural support for the cell membrane, it is a gatekeeper for what flows in and out of the cell, it catayzes chemical reactiosn
Nutrition therapy for mild cases of constipation includes
heavy drinking of fluids, consuming more fiber daily
The processs of using the instructions cntained the RNA to synthesize a new protein on a ribsosome is called
Which of the follwing accessory organs stores bile?
compartment, particle or filament, performs a specialized function describes what?
Large dosages of vitamin 1 ( more thatn 3 times the RDA)
can cause harmful side effects,
___ is a segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein
The circulation of water-soluble nutrients from the GI tract to the liver is via the
Identify grains that should be eliminated from the diet of someone with celiac disease.
(rice and tapioca are ok)
The contraction of muscles in the esophagus is called
peristalisis ( same as large intestine)
Which type of tissue allows secretion absorption and exretion??
Tendons and cartilage are made of what kind of tissue?
If the diet is lacking in a specific nutrient, it will....
Break down tissue that contain a high concentration of the nutrient.
The lining of the stomach is protected from the acidic environment by...
a mucus lining
which organ secretes bicarbonate into the small intestine to neutralize chyme as it moves from the stomach into the small intestine?
nutrients require a carrier protein
nutrients move from an area of higher concentration to one of a lower concentration
nutrients require both a carrier protein and energy
In order for the nutrients from the foods we eat to be utilized, they must first be
The main function of the lower esophageal sphincter is to
prevent the backflow of GI traact contents (puke0
The intestinalcells are involved in immune defenses because they
form a barrier against pathogens, produce immunoglobulins
A genogram (family tree) can be useful for assessing your risk for which of the following conditions? osteoporosis, breast cancer cardiovascular disease, influenza
osteoporosis, breast cance, cardiovascular disease
How fiber works in reducing constipation 1.2.3.
fiber stimulates perstalsis by drawing water into the large intestine.
irritable bowel syndrome is more common in younger men/women
___ plays a role in the formation of the myelin sheath
order of three parts of GI tract
duodenum jejunum ileum
Calcium is stored in..
glucose is stored in
muscle and liver
fat is stored in
What two hormones increase blood glucose?
The contents of the stomach pass thorugh the pyloric sphincter at the rate of a ___ at a time
what substance is necessary for the body to absorb citamin b 12?
The intrinsic factor
T/F Only the enzymes form the digestive system are made of protein
F all enzymes are made of protien
one substance responsible for the digestion and absorptionof fat in the small intesitine is
Most of the digestive and absorptive processes are
List three organs that are important parts of the digetive system even though they do not com in direct contact with food mater in the gastrointestinal tract
Gall baldder, pancreas liver
t/R nutritional status has no effect on organ function
During the depolarization phase of nerve impulse transmission, ___ ions flow into the neuron and ___ ions flow out of the neuron.
An example of a probiotic food would be
large dietary fats are absorbed from the small intestine into the
Lymph, ( small dietary fast an dwatersoluble nutrients are absorbed into the portal vein
in the liver and muscle cells, glycogen is the short-term storage form of
During protein synthesis, RNA is translated by the____
the large intestine can absorb remaining
sodium, potassium, water, some fatty acids and gases
Gall stones may develop during rapid weight loss or prolonged fasting due to the
Liver undrproducing bile, liver secreting more cholesterol into the bile
The heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins make up what system
The genetic information nondiscrimination act of 2008
prohibts health insurers from using the results of genetic teting to raise premiums or deny coverage
During the process of transcription
the DNA code is copied to RNA
T/R: located in the cytoplasm, the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubes that are continuous with the outer membrane of the ell nucleus.
In someone with cystic fibrosis , fat digestion is impaired due to
Blocked pancreatic ducts, and limited secretions of enzymes from the pancreas
as a signal is transmitted along a neuron, there is a net loss of ___ from the neuron
which nutrients are absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine via active absorption?
glucose, amino acids
Lipids are absorbed via
which of the following nutrients are absorbed directly into the blood and transported by the hepatic portal vein to the liver?
Monosaccharides, vitamin c, amino acids
Sue has type 1 diabetes and takes daily insuilin injections.. this means there is a breakdown in which system?
Nutrigenomics focuses on the interactions between
Nutrion and gene expression (genetics)
___ bind to invading microorganisms and prevent them from entering the bloodstream
T/F nutrition influences gene expression
Which yields energy? Fat minerals vitamins carbs protein
fat carbs protein
the __ within the phagocyte is responsible for the ultimate digestion fo the invading antigen
The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are part of the digestive system but are considered to be___ structures