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What are the four types of nonfluent aphasia?
- Broca's aphasia
- Transcotical motor aphasia
- Mixed transcotical aphasia
- Global aphasia
Also known as expressive, central motor, anterior, efferent motor, agrammatic, syntactic and verbal aphasias.
Brocas's aphasia is widely used to describe nonfluent, effortful and agrammatic type of language production that is generally meaningful.
Broca's area- the left, lower and posterior portion of the frontal lobe on the inferior frontal gyrus of the left hemisphere.
What are the major language characteristics of Broca's Aphasia?
- 1. Non fluent- pauses, prolongation, repetition
- 2. Agrammatic speech - grammar (nouns, verbs) Straight to the point, limited words.
- 3. Slow rate with uneven flow.
- 4. Limited word output and reduced lenth of utterances.
- 5. Impaired repetition (the boy is walking. boy walk.)
- 6. Impaired confrontation naming (naming and object, a picture, or a person when asked to do so.) Cannot name on demand.
- 7. Some impairment in auditory comprehension.
- 8. Poor auditory reading.
- 9. Writing problems
- 10. Monotonous speech- lack of intonation.
Most severe form of aphasia. Has a generalized effect on communication skills. Disorder affects all modes of communication, including non verbal and spares no particular skill.
What are the major characteristics of Global Aphasia?
- 1. Strong neurological symptons. Right hemiparesis (muscle weakness or partial paralysis on one side) or hemiplegia (paralysis on one side). Right sided loss is commonly observed.
- 2. Apraxia - both verbal and nonverbal apraxia may be present.
- 3. Hemineglect- neglect one side of the body.
What are the major language characteristics of Global Aphasia?
- 1. Globally impaired communication skills. (no idea what they are saying and does not make since.)
- 2. Severely reduced fluency.
- 3. Extremely limited verbal expression. Patients may keep repeating short utterances. (perseveration) Something over and over.
- 4. Impaired repetition. Patient may be unable to repeat even simple words.
- 5. Impaired naming. Lack of meaningful verbal expression obviously extends to problems in naming.
- 6. Impaired auditory comprehension. Comprehension may be limited to single words, although some evidence suggest that patients understand more than they can express.
- 7. Impaired writing and reading skills.
What is the prognosis for recovery from global aphasia?
Prognosis for recovery is limited and worse than what is seen in other types of aphasia.
May recover more comprehension skills than expressive skills.
May evolve into another type of aphasia, like Broca's or Wernickes.
Younger patients evolve into a less severe type.
Usually alert, responsive socially appropriate.