Ecology

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Author:
Dienekes
ID:
275335
Filename:
Ecology
Updated:
2014-05-25 19:15:13
Tags:
Biology Ecology
Folders:
Biology
Description:
No species lives independently of others. Vast communities of interconnected species can be found in every ecosystem, with complex interactions that determine their evolutionary success or failure. The flow of energy and cycling of nutrients through the ecosystem links every species together in a complex web. Currently, humans are having a greater effect on the biosphere than any other species on earth ever has. Through climate change, our activities are predicted to have a great effect on the world’s ecosystems and result in increased species extinction. By placing a high value on biodiversity, restoring affected areas and living sustainably, we can mitigate these effects.
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  1. Joint
    evolution of two closely interacting species; each species is a
    selective agent that shifts the range of variation in the other.
    Coevolution
  2. When two species compete for a limiting resource, one drives the other to local extinction.
    Competitive exclusion
  3. The number of species and their relative abundance.
    Species diversity
  4. Movement of phosphorus among rocks, water, soil, and living organisms.
    Phosphorus cycle
  5. Organisms that eat organisms or their remains.
    Consumers
  6. A species that withdraws nutrients from another species (its host), usually without killing it.
    Parasites
  7. An animal feeds on a plant, which may or may not die as a result.
    Herbivory
  8. Use of different portions of a limited resource; allows species with similar needs to coexist.
    Resource partitioning
  9. Diagram that illustrates the energy flow in an ecosystem.
    Energy pyramid
  10. A gradual change in a community in which one array of species replaces another.
    Ecological succession
  11. Two or more species come to resemble one another.
    Mimicry
  12. Water between soil particles and in aquifers.
    Groundwater
  13. Organisms that capture energy and make their own food from inorganic materials in the environment.
    Producers
  14. One species (the predator) captures, kills, and feeds on another (its prey).
    Predation
  15. Atmospheric gas that helps keep heat from escaping into space and thus warms the Earth.
    Greenhouse gases
  16. Ecological succession occurs in an area where a community previously existed and soil remains.
    Secondary succession
  17. One species lives on or inside another in a commensal, mutualistic, or parasitic relationship.
    Symbiosis
  18. Movement of carbon among rocks, water, the atmosphere, and living organisms.
    Carbon cycle
  19. Movement of nitrogen among the atmosphere, soil, and water, and into and out of food webs.
    Nitrogen cycle
  20. Species interaction that benefits one species and neither helps nor harms the other.
    Commensalism
  21. A species that has a disproportionately large effect on community structure.
    Keystone species
  22. Species that can colonize a new habitat.
    Pioneer species
  23. Position of an organism in a food chain.
    Trophic levels
  24. Consumers that feed on small bits of organic material (detritus).
    Detritivores
  25. Porous rock layer that holds some groundwater.
    Aquifers
  26. Two species compete for a limited resource and both are harmed by the interaction.
    Interspecific competition
  27. Body shape, pattern, or behavior that helps a plant or animal blend into its surroundings.
    Camouflage
  28. An insect that lays eggs in another insect, and whose young devour their host from the inside.
    Parasitoids
  29. All populations of all species in some area.
    Community
  30. Sequence of steps by which energy moves from one trophic level to the next.
    Food chain
  31. Wide-ranging changes in rainfall patterns, average temperature, and other climate
    factors that result from rising concentrations of greenhouse gases.
    Global climate change
  32. Ecological succession occurs in an area where there was previously no soil.
    Primary succession
  33. The type of place in which a species lives.
    Habitat
  34. Conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia.
    Nitrogen fixation
  35. Consumers that feed on remains and break them into their inorganic building blocks.
    Decomposers
  36. The energy captured by an ecosystem's producers.
    Primary production
  37. The role of a species in its community.
    Niche
  38. A nutrient moves among environmental reservoirs and into and out of food webs.
    Biogeochemical cycle
  39. A community and its environment.
    Ecosystem
  40. Water moves from its main reservoir—the ocean—into the air, falls as rain and snow, and flows back to the ocean.
    Water cycle
  41. An animal that tricks another species into raising its young, for example a cowbird.
    Brood parasites
  42. A species that has been introduced to a new habitat and become established there.
    Exotic species
  43. Distinctive color or pattern that makes a well-defended prey species easy to recognize.
    Warning coloration
  44. Warming of Earth's lower atmosphere and surface as a result of heat trapped by greenhouse gases.
    Greenhouse effect
  45. Species interaction that benefits both species.
    Mutualism
  46. System of cross-connecting food chains.
    Food web
  47. A species' habitat is like its address, and its is like its occupation.

    A. richness
    B. gene pool
    C. niche
    D. community
    C. niche
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. With interspecific competition, selection favors individuals of both species who are most ___ the competing species.

    a. similar to
    b. different from
    b. different from
  49. Parasitoids are ___ that lay eggs in the bodies of their hosts.

    A. birds
    B. reptiles
    C. insects
    D. fish
    C. insects
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. The establishment of a biological community on a newly formed volcanic island is an example of ___.

    A. resource partitioning
    B. competitive exclusion
    C. primary succession
    D. secondary succession
    C. primary succession
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. In an energy pyramid diagram of a prairie food web, which of these organisms would be in the lowest (and largest) tier?

    A. grasses
    B. grasshoppers
    C. grasshopper-eating sparrows
    D. sparrow-eating hawks
    A. grasses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Earth's largest reservoir of fresh water is ___.

    A. glacial ice
    B. lakes
    C. groundwater
    D. water in living organisms
    A. glacial ice
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. ___ convert nitrogen gas to a form producers can take up.

    A. Bacteria
    B. Mosses
    C. Fungi
    D. Mammals
    A. Bacteria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Land plants take up ___ for photosynthesis from the air.

    A. ammonium ions
    B. carbon dioxide
    C. phosphate ions
    D. nitrogen gas
    B. carbon dioxide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Addition of ___ to water encourages algal blooms.

    A. bicarbonate ions
    B. salt
    C. carbon dioxide
    D. phosphate ions
    D. phosphate ions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. A biological control agent is ___ a pest species.

    A. a descendant of
    B. prey of
    C. a natural enemy of
    D. mutualistic with
    C. a natural enemy of
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Greenhouse gases ___.

    A. trap heat in the atmosphere
    B. may cause global climate change if they accumulate
    C. are released by burning of fossil fuels
    D. all of these
    D. all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. A(n) ___ species is one that arrives early in succession.

    A. exotic
    B. pioneer
    C. keystone
    D. commensal
    B. pioneer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Feeds on small bits of organic matter
    Detritivore
  60. Degrades organic wastes and remains to inorganic forms
    Decomposer
  61. Steals parental care
    Brood parasite
  62. Captures sunlight energy
    Producer
  63. What is the largest environmental reservoir of carbon?

    A. Seawater
    B. Rocks and sediments
    C. Rocks and sediments
    D. The atmosphere
    B. Rocks and sediments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. What is the largest environmental reservoir of water?

    A. Rocks and sediments
    B. Rocks and sediments
    C. Seawater
    D. The atmosphere
    C. Seawater
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. What is the largest environmental reservoir of phosphorus?

    A. The atmosphere
    B. Rocks and sediments
    C. Rocks and sediments
    D. Seawater
    B. Rocks and sediments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. What is the largest environmental reservoir of nitrogen?

    A. The atmosphere
    B. Seawater
    C. Rocks and sediments
    D. Rocks and sediments
    A. The atmosphere
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Red imported fire ants are native to

    A. Asia
    B. New Zealand
    C. South America
    D. The United States
    E. The Caribbean
    C. South America
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. A community consists of

    A. All the members of all species in a region
    B. None of these
    C. All the members of all species and the abiotic components in a region
    D. All the members of one species in a region
    A. All the members of all species in a region
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. A given community has many species, all of which have a large number of individuals. This community has

    A. High species richness and evenness
    B. High species richness but low species evenness
    C. Low species richness and evenness
    D. None of these
    E. High species evenness but low species richness
    A. High species richness and evenness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. All of the following are nonbiological factors for a community, except

    A. Soil quality
    B. Sunlight intensity
    C. Temperature
    D. Species interaction
    E. Rainfall
    D. Species interaction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Requirements for which of the following are not part of describing a plant's niche?

    A. Soil.
    B. Water.
    C. Light.
    D. Requirements for all these are part of a plant's niche.
    E. Pollinators.
    D. Requirements for all these are part of a plant's niche.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. In which of these interactions do both species benefit?

    A. Competition
    B. Parasitism
    C. Predation
    D. Mutualism
    E. Commensalism
    D. Mutualism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. Which of the following is not true of herbivory?

    A. Caffeine may discourage it.
    B. Capsaicin favors rodent herbivory.
    C. Thorns may discourage it.
    D. An animal feeds on a plant.
    E. Camouflage may discourage it.
    B. Capsaicin favors rodent herbivory.

    Capsaicin is a compound that is responsible for the pungency of capsicums.

    Capsicum is a tropical American pepper plant of the nightshade family with fruits containing many seeds. Many cultivated varieties with edible, pungent fruits have been developed.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. Which of the following cannot be parasites?

    A. Protists.
    B. Fungi.
    C. All these can be parasites.
    D. Ticks.
    E. Bacteria.
    C. All these can be parasites.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. In which of the following scenarios would primary succession occur?

    A. After a farmer's field is abandoned
    B. After a flood
    C. After a forest fire
    D. After a novel volcanic island emerges from the sea
    E. After a forest is clear cut
    D. After a novel volcanic island emerges from the sea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. A species that has a disproportionate impact on the community relative to its abundance is described as a(n)

    A. Disturbance-adapted species
    B. Keystone species
    C. Pioneer species
    D. Exotic species
    E. Climax species
    B. Keystone species
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. Which of the following are not an invasive species?

    A. Kangaroos
    B. Gypsy moths
    C. Kudzu
    D. Nutrias
    E. Red imported fire ants
    A. Kangaroos
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. Organismal wastes and remains are broken down to inorganic building blocks by

    A. Decomposers
    B. Detritivores
    C. Consumers
    D. Producers
    E. None of these
    A. Decomposers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. Which of the following is likely to occupy the first trophic level?

    A. Wolf
    B. Wheat
    C. Insect
    D. Fish
    E. Cow
    B. Wheat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. Which level of an energy pyramid tends to be the smallest?

    A. Carnivore.
    B. Top carnivore.
    C. All levels are about the same.
    D. Herbivore.
    E. Producer.
    B. Top carnivore.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. What percentage of the energy in a given tropic level ends up in the tissues of the next-highest trophic level?

    A. 100%
    B. 0%
    C. 25%
    D. 10%
    E. 50%
    D. 10%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. What percentage of the water on Earth is fresh water?

    A. 100%
    B. 10%
    C. 3%
    D. 25%
    E. 50%
    C. 3%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Gaseous nitrogen can only be fixed in a form useable for life by

    A. Plants
    B. Bacteria
    C. Animals
    D. All of these
    E. Fungi
    B. Bacteria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Which of the following is not a result of the greenhouse effect?

    A. Rising sea levels
    B. Increased glacial melting
    C. Loss of the ozone layer
    D. Altered rainfall patterns
    E. Altered wind patterns
    C. Loss of the ozone layer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. Based on the concepts of coevolution, it is logical that a parasitoid to combat red imported fire ants (RIFA) would come from

    A. Asia
    B. Australia
    C. North America
    D. Europe
    E. South America
    E. South America
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. Phorid flies kill red imported fire ants by

    A. Laying eggs that hatch inside them
    B. Living in their digestive tract
    C. Eating the RIFA eggs
    D. Living in their reproductive tract
    E. Living on their body surface
    A. Laying eggs that hatch inside them
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. Dry region on the downwind side of a coastal mountain range.
    Rain shadow
  88. Temperate grassland biome of North America. Its grasses and other plants are adapted to recover after grazing and the occasional fire.
    Prairies
  89. Biome dominated by conifers that can withstand the cold winters at high northern latitudes.
    Boreal forest
  90. Rain containing sulfuric and/or nitric acid; forms when pollutants mix with water vapor in the atmosphere.
    Acid rain
  91. Biome with little precipitation; its perennial plants are adapted to withstand drought.
    Desert
  92. Region of upper atmosphere with a high ozone concentration; acts as a sunscreen against UV radiation.
    Ozone layer
  93. A natural or man-made substance that is released into the environment in greater than natural amounts and that damages the health of organisms.
    Pollutant
  94. A species that faces extinction in all or part of its range.
    Endangered species
  95. Place where hot, mineral-rich water streams out from an underwater opening in Earth's crust.
    Hydrothermal vents
  96. Removal of all trees from a forested area.
    Deforestation
  97. An undersea mountain.
    Seamounts
  98. Any of Earth's major land ecosystems, characterized by climate and main vegetation and found in several regions.
    Biomes
  99. Northernmost biome, dominated by low plants that grow over a layer of permafrost.
    Tundra
  100. Biome dominated by broadleaf trees that grow in warm summers, then drop their leaves and go dormant during cold winters.
    Temperate deciduous forests
  101. A highly productive ecosystem where nutrient-rich water from a river mixes with seawater.
    Estuary
  102. A species likely to become endangered in the near future.
    Threatened species
  103. Field of applied biology that surveys biodiversity and seeks ways to maintain and use it.
    Conservation biology
  104. Conversion of grassland or woodlands to desertlike conditions.
    Desertification
  105. In tropical sunlit seas, a formation composed of secretions of coral polyps that serves as home to many other species.
    Coral reefs
  106. Multilayered forest that occurs where warm temperatures and continual rains allow plant growth year-round. Most productive and species-rich biome.
    Tropical rain forests
  107. Of a region, the genetic diversity within its species, variety of species, and variety of ecosystems.
    Biodiversity
  108. Actively altering an area in an effort to restore or create a functional ecosystem.
    Ecological restoration
  109. Tropical biome dominated by grasses and other plants adapted to grazing, as well as a scattering of shrubs.
    Savannas
  110. Layer of permanently frozen soil in the Arctic.
    Permafrost
  111. A species that is particularly sensitive to environmental changes and can be monitored
    to assess whether an ecosystem is threatened.
    Indicator species
  112. Biome with cool wet winters, hot dry summers; dominant plants are shrubs with small, leathery leaves
    Chaparral
  113. A species that evolved in one place and is found nowhere else.
    Endemic species
  114. Average weather conditions in a region over a long time period.
    Climate
  115. A chemical pollutant becomes increasingly concentrated as it moves through a food chain. deforestation Removal of all trees from a forested area.
    Biological magnification
  116. All portions of the Earth where life exists.
    Biosphere
  117. The most solar radiation reaches the ground at ___.

    A. the equator
    B. the South Pole
    C. midlatitudes
    D. the North Pole
    A. the equator
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  118. When air is heated, it ___ and can hold ___ water.

    A. rises; less
    B. sinks; more
    C. sinks; less
    D. rises; more
    D. rises; more
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. Most North American ___ has been converted to cropland.

    A. tundra
    B. desert
    C. boreal forest
    D. prairie
    D. prairie
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. Plants in ___ are adapted to periodic fires.

    A. tropical rain forests
    B. chaparral
    C. deserts
    D. boreal forests
    B. chaparral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. Permafrost underlies ___.

    A. tundra
    B. savanna
    C. desert
    D. prairie
    A. tundra
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. The oldest and most productive biome is ___.

    A. tropical rain forest
    B. boreal forest
    C. tundra
    D. desert
    A. tropical rain forest
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. Bacteria and archaea that can obtain energy from minerals are the main producers at ___.

    A. estuaries
    B. hydrothermal vents
    C. coral reefs
    D. seamounts
    B. hydrothermal vents
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. Which would hold more oxygen?

    a. a fast-moving, cool stream
    b. a warm pond
    a. a fast-moving, cool stream
  125. An ___ species has population levels so low it is at great risk of extinction in the near future.

    A. indicator
    B. endangered
    C. exotic
    D. endemic
    B. endangered
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  126. An ___ species can be monitored to gauge the health of its environment.

    A. endangered
    B. exotic
    C. indicator
    D. endemic
    C. indicator
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. The 1930s environmental disaster known as the Dust Bowl is an example of ___.

    A. ecological restoration
    B. desertification
    C. deforestation
    D. species extinction
    B. desertification
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. The ozone layer ___.

    A. screens out UV radiation
    B. is getting thicker
    C. helps keep Earth warm
    D. is near the ground
    A. screens out UV radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  129. Acid rain ___.

    A. harms aquatic organisms
    B. is a type of pollution
    C. kills trees
    D. all of these
    D. all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  130. Biological magnification causes pollutants to be high in ___.

    A. the stratosphere
    B. predators
    C. aquifers
    D. producers
    B. predators
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  131. How do pollutants arrive in the Arctic?

    A. Air currents.
    B. Migratory birds.
    C. There are no pollutants in the Arctic.
    D. Air and water currents and migratory birds.
    E. Water currents.
    D. Air and water currents and migratory birds.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  132. Which of the following impacts on the biosphere is not due to human activity?

    A. All these are due to human activities.
    B. Resource competition.
    C. Introduction of nonnative competitors.
    D. Overharvesting of species.
    E. Increasing levels of atmospheric oxygen.
    E. Increasing levels of atmospheric oxygen.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  133. Which of the following is not an element of climate?

    A. Humidity
    B. Temperature
    C. Wind speed
    D. Species density
    E. Cloud cover
    D. Species density
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  134. Rain shadows are created by

    A. Deserts
    B. Coastal mountains
    C. High temperatures
    D. Low temperatures
    E. Clouds
    B. Coastal mountains

    A rain shadow is a dry area on the lee side of a mountainous area (away from the wind). The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems and cast a "shadow" of dryness behind them.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  135. Europe is kept warmer than expected due to water flow from the

    A. North Atlantic Ocean
    B. South Atlantic Ocean
    C. Indian Ocean
    D. North Pacific Ocean
    E. South Pacific Ocean
    B. South Atlantic Ocean
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  136. Which biome is the most structurally complex?

    A. Tundra
    B. Savanna
    C. Tropical rain forest
    D. Boreal forest
    E. Temperate deciduous forest
    C. Tropical rain forest
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  137. Fire-adapted plants are common to

    A. Deserts
    B. Tundra
    C. Chaparral
    D. Tropical rain forests
    E. Savannas
    C. Chaparral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  138. Desert is defined by

    A. The presence of cacti
    B. High temperature
    C. Low precipitation
    D. Being at 30° north or south latitude
    E. Low temperature
    C. Low precipitation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  139. Producers would not be found in:

    A. Lower, dark zones
    B. Upper, well-lit open waters
    C. Near the shore
    D. Any freshwater ecosystem
    E. Streams
    A. Lower, dark zones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  140. Seawater mixes with fresh water in

    A. Estuaries
    B. Hydrothermal vents
    C. Coral reefs
    D. Lakes
    E. Streams
    A. Estuaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  141. Which of the following can support non-photosynthetic primary producers?

    A. Lakes
    B. Estuaries
    C. Streams
    D. Coral reefs
    E. Hydrothermal vents
    E. Hydrothermal vents
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  142. A species that faces extinction in all or part of its range is termed a(an)

    A. Endangered species
    B. Endemic species
    C. Pioneer species
    D. Exotic species
    E. Threatened species
    A. Endangered species
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  143. About what percentage of species examined have been found to be either threatened or endangered?

    A. 1%
    B. 0%
    C. 5%
    D. 35%
    E. 10%
    D. 35%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  144. Based on the concept of biological magnification, which trophic level would have the highest concentration of pollutants in its tissues?

    A. The first and third would be equally high.
    B. First.
    C. All should be the same.
    D. Second.
    E. Third.
    E. Third.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  145. Ozone depletion has been largely caused by

    A. Burning fossil fuels
    B. Desertification
    C. Dumping waste at sea
    D. Chlorofluorocarbon production
    E. Deforestation
    D. Chlorofluorocarbon production
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  146. Indicator species are

    A. Sensitive to environmental change
    B. Able to contribute to primary succession
    C. More impactful in their ecosystem than their numbers would suggest
    D. Restricted to the region in which they evolved
    E. Able to thrive in new habitats
    A. Sensitive to environmental change
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  147. Conservation biology is concerned with

    A. Retaining ecosystem diversity
    B. None of these
    C. Retaining species diversity
    D. All three levels of diversity
    E. Retaining genetic diversity within species
    D. All three levels of diversity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  148. The best way to minimize environmental impact in developed countries is to

    A. Reduce energy usage.
    B. Use fossil fuels for energy.
    C. Use hydroelectric energy.
    D. Use wind-generated energy.
    E. Use solar-generated energy.
    A. Reduce energy usage.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  149. How many countries have territorial claims to all or part of the Arctic?

    A. 3
    B. 8
    C. 0
    D. 2
    E. 1
    B. 8
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  150. Which of the following is not true of the Arctic?

    A. It has gas deposits.
    B. All these are true.
    C. The perennial ice mass is growing.
    D. It has oil deposits.
    E. It has mineral deposits.
    C. The perennial ice mass is growing.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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