Biology Chap 1

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rwischnewski
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275426
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Biology Chap 1
Updated:
2014-05-26 22:22:27
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Biology
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Biology
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Biology: Chapter 1, the study of life
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  1. What are the steps of the Scientific Method?
    • 1) Making Observation
    • 2) Formulating a Hypothesis 
    • 3) Performing Experiments and Making Observations 
    • 4) Coming to a Conclusion
  2. Inductive reasoning?
    occurs whenever a person uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole
  3. hypothesis?
    explanation based on existing knowledge
  4. experiment?
    a series of procedures to test a hypothesis
  5. experimental variable?
    variable in an experiment that is deliberately changed
  6. test groups?
    group that is exposed to the experimental variable
  7. control group?
    group NOT exposed to experimental variable
  8. model?
    a representation of an actual object
  9. data?
    results of an experiment or further observations
  10. scientific theories?
    accepted explanations (concepts) for how the world works
  11. 5 basic theories of biology?
    • cell 
    • gene 
    • evolution 
    • homeostasis
    • ecosystem
  12. legume?
    a plant that has root nodules where bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to a form plants such as winter wheat can use
  13. What are the levels of biological organization?
    • biosphere
    • ecosystem 
    • community 
    • population 
    • organism 
    • organ system 
    • organ 
    • tissue 
    • cell 
    • molecule 
    • atom
  14. cells?
    the fundamental unit of living things
  15. atoms?
    the smallest portions of an element
  16. What is the cell theory?
    states that cells, the fundamental units of life, come from other cells as reproduction of cells and the organism occurs
  17. energy?
    the capacity to do work
  18. metabolism?
    carries out chemical reactions
  19. photosynthesis?
    allows plants to capture solar energy and produce nutrients that sustain all organisms
  20. what is the gene theory?
    genes are hereditary units composed of DNA
  21. Theory of Homeostasis?
    states that organisms and cells have mechanisms  that keep the internal environment relatively constant
  22. Theory of ecosystems?
    states that organisms form units in which they interact with the biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) components of the environment
  23. What are the levels of classification?
    • domain 
    • kingdom 
    • phylum 
    • class 
    • order 
    • family 
    • genus 
    • species
  24. Theory of evolution?
    states that all species (living or extinct) can trace their ancestry to a common source
  25. evolutionary tree?
    depicts the pattern of descent by way of common ancestors
  26. taxonomy?
    the classification of organism according to the evolutionary relationships
  27. What are the three domains?
    • bacteria 
    • archaea 
    • eukarya
  28. prokaryotes?
    organisms without a membrane-bounded nucleus
  29. eukaryotes?
    organisms with a membrane-bounded nucleus
  30. What are the four major groups in the Eurkarya domain?
    • protists
    • fungi 
    • plants 
    • animals
  31. protists?
    unicellular to multicelluar organisms with various modes of nutrition
  32. bionomial nomenclature?
    two part scientific name used to classify an organism
  33. Theory of evolution?
    states that modifications are introduced as evolution occurs, and if these modifications assist adaptions, they become more common through natural selection
  34. natural selection?
    brings about adaption to the environment
  35. artificial selection?
    humans are the selective agent and not the environment
  36. What are some characteristics shared by all living organisms?
    • life is organized 
    • life uses materials and energy 
    • life reproduces 
    • life is homeostatic 
    • life responds to stimuli 
    • life forms ecosystems 
    • life evolves

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