Glossary terms chpt 1

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Glossary terms chpt 1
2014-05-27 22:04:28
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Chapter 1 glossary terms ms. Day homework
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  1. Ecosystem
    All the interacting parts of a biological community and that community's environment.
  2. Sustainable ecosystem
    An ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms.

    • - All organisms require a sustainable ecosystem for survivable
    • - Many depend on more than one ecosystem to survive
    • - E.x. migrating birds
  3. Biotic
    - All includes all living or formerly living parts of the ecosystems
  4. Abiotic
    - All the non living pats of the ecosystem that organisms need to survive

    ex. Water, air (oxygen), chemical nutrients, light, *soil
  5. Lithosphere
    Hard part of Earth's surface includes rock and soil.
  6. Hydrosphere
    Liquid part of Earth's surface; includes salt water, oceans, fresh water lakes, rivers
  7. Atmosphere
    Layer of gasses above Earth's surface, includes air
  8. Biosphere
    Living part of Earth's surface, not separate
  9. Nutrients
    Nutrients are chemicals that are needed by living things to survive.
  10. Eutrophication
    A process in which nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, leading to increase of primary producers.
  11. Photosynthesis
    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, to be used as "food"
  12. Trophic level
    Categories of organisms defined by how the organism gains energy.

  13. Biomass
    The total mass of living organisms in a defined group or area.
  14. Trophic efficiency
    A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher one.

    - The % is always under 100% because organisms  use most of the energy for life functions (~ 10% passed on)

    - Biomass decreases from one trophic level to the next because:

    • - Not all of the lower organism is eaten
    • -Not everything eaten is digested (Waste)
    • - Energy is lost as heat
    • The loss of energy is why there is usually less carnivores than herbivores and herbivores than plants
  15. Bioaccumulation
    • A process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they are eliminated
    • - (e.g. DDT, PCB's)
  16. Biomagnification
    Is the increase in the concentration in a toxin as it moves from one trophic level to the next.
  17. Cellular respiration
    • Organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, and others use the most efficient method for extracting energy cellular respiration.
    • - Consume oxygen produce carbon dioxide
  18. Fermentation
    Fermentation occurs when oxygen is absent, or under anaerobic conditions.
  19. Greenhouse gases
    Water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane.
  20. Greenhouse effect
    Water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane, which trap some of the energy from the Sun that would otherwise escape.

  21. Acid precipitation
    • - Fossil fuel burning releases nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide
    • - These gasses combine with water in the atmosphere to form nitric acid and sulphuric acid
    • - These acids lower the normal pH of precipitation eventually descends as acid precipitation in the form of rain, sleet, or snow.