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All the interacting parts of a biological community and that community's environment.
An ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms.
- - All organisms require a sustainable ecosystem for survivable
- - Many depend on more than one ecosystem to survive
- - E.x. migrating birds
- All includes all living or formerly living parts of the ecosystems
- All the non living pats of the ecosystem that organisms need to survive
ex. Water, air (oxygen), chemical nutrients, light, *soil
Hard part of Earth's surface includes rock and soil.
Liquid part of Earth's surface; includes salt water, oceans, fresh water lakes, rivers
Layer of gasses above Earth's surface, includes air
Living part of Earth's surface, not separate
Nutrients are chemicals that are needed by living things to survive.
A process in which nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, leading to increase of primary producers.
The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, to be used as "food"
Categories of organisms defined by how the organism gains energy.
The total mass of living organisms in a defined group or area.
A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher one.
- The % is always under 100% because organisms use most of the energy for life functions (~ 10% passed on)
- Biomass decreases from one trophic level to the next because:
- - Not all of the lower organism is eaten
- -Not everything eaten is digested (Waste)
- - Energy is lost as heat
- The loss of energy is why there is usually less carnivores than herbivores and herbivores than plants
- A process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they are eliminated
- - (e.g. DDT, PCB's)
Is the increase in the concentration in a toxin as it moves from one trophic level to the next.
- Organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, and others use the most efficient method for extracting energy cellular respiration.
- - Consume oxygen produce carbon dioxide
Fermentation occurs when oxygen is absent, or under anaerobic conditions.
Water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane.
Water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane, which trap some of the energy from the Sun that would otherwise escape.
- - Fossil fuel burning releases nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide
- - These gasses combine with water in the atmosphere to form nitric acid and sulphuric acid
- - These acids lower the normal pH of precipitation eventually descends as acid precipitation in the form of rain, sleet, or snow.