Card Set Information

2014-05-29 04:11:54
bio geo

Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Ninimew on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?

  1. 4 modes of air travel
    • passive flight
    • parachuting
    • soaring
    • active flight
  2. Dispersing spores (passive flight) evolved in the __ era
    • Early Paleozoic
    • Oldest spores = Ordovician
  3. Insects with flight evolved in the __ period
  4. Parachuting vertebrates evolved in the __ period and were diverse in the __ period
    Permian; Triassic
  5. Pterosaurs evolved in the __ period.
    Late Triassic
  6. Birds evolved in the __ period
  7. Bats evolved in the __ period
    early Tertiary
  8. Why did flight evolve in animals?
    • escape predators
    • catch prey
    • move from place to place
    • access to new food sources/unoccupied niche
    • social reasons?
  9. The first animals to fly were
    • arthropods: flying Hexapods (common by late Carboniferous)
    • flight only occurs in adults
  10. origin of flight in insects
    • possessed walking legs and exites (homologous with exopods?)
    • evolved from gill/swimming legs
    • didn't sacrifice "walking limb" for wings
  11. In insects, wings were pre-adapted for
    • swimming
    • Small wing aspect ratios require rapid strokes.
  12. primary requirements/demands of active flight
    • strong, yet light body (skeleton)
    • streamline/aerodynamic body
    • modified pectoral girdle capable of power stroke
    • modified forelimb capable of supporting useful wing
  13. Cursorial Flight Hypothesis among birds
    • began by running and flapping from the ground
    • Terrestrial theropods used wings to catch prey "insect nets" or
    • flapping and fighting during social activities
    • problem with hypothesis: Theropods could climb.
  14. Arboreal Flight Hypothesis among birds
    • began by climbing and jumping from trees
    • Theropods climbs trees to avoid predation and forage
    • problem with hypothesis: Climbing damages feathers on terrestrial theropods.
  15. 1st vertebrates capable of true/powered/active flight
    Pterosaurs (Late Triassic)
  16. locomotion of Pterosaurs on ground
    • ability to walk is debatable:
    • Fused pelvic girdle suggests bipedal locomotion.
    • Scrawny hind limbs with "sideways" posture suggests quadrupedal locomotion
  17. origin of birds
    evolved by the Late Jurassic from Theropod dinosaurs
  18. There was a low diversity of birds until the __ period
    • late Cretaceous
    • (very successful group)
  19. A good candidate for sister taxa of birds are the
  20. Dromeosaurids originated in the __ period
    Late Cretaceous (younger than first birds)
  21. Similarities between first birds and Dromeosaurids
    • feathered
    • bipedal
    • big brained
    • cursorial
    • terrestrial (couldn't fly)
  22. general adaptations of birds
    • hollow bones (pneumatic)
    • keeled sternum
    • short stout humerus
    • wing supported by elongated radius and ulna
    • feathers
    • fused clavicle AKA furculum
  23. first "true bird"
    Archaeopteryx (Late Jurassic)
  24. similarities and differences between Archaeopteryx and modern birds
    • similarities: feathers and furculum
    • differences: fingers on wings, small sternum
  25. purposes of developing wings
    • display = social activity
    • thermoregulation
  26. characteristics of Archaopteryx that fit the Cursorial hypothesis
    • tail feathers not for flight
    • fused clavicle (furculum)
    • claws for catching prey
  27. characteristics of Archaopteryx that fit the Arboreal hypothesis
    • retroverted hallux capable of perching
    • fore limb clawed phalanges could be used for climbling
  28. bird evolution
    • Birds show a gradual increase in flying during early evolution.
    • Later birds improved on the basic flight adaptations and become better flyers.
  29. swimming/diving birds
    • Penguins and other divers use the basic stroke "flying underwater"
    • Other birds use their feet for diving
  30. The hypothetical ancestor of bats would have been
    a nocturnal, insectivorous, arboreal glider
  31. flight adaptations of bats
    • keen senses (echolocation or good eyesight)
    • modified pectoral girdle
    • reduced radius with enlarged humerus and ulna
    • clawed fingers
    • uropatagium: membrane between hind limbs for stabilization and gliding
  32. bat wing
    membrane supported by the arm and several elongated fingers, which help produce greater thrust

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview