Chemistry Chapter 17

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Henri93
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275560
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Chemistry Chapter 17
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2014-05-28 22:43:25
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Chemistry Chapter 17
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Chemistry Chapter 17
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  1. an insulated device used to measure the absorption or release of heat in chemical or physical processes
    calorimeter
  2. the precise measurement of heat flow out of a system for chemical and physical processes
    calorimetry
  3. energy stored in chemical bonds
    chemical potential energy
  4. a process that absorbs heat from the surroundings
    endothermic process
  5. the heat content of a system at constant pressure
    enthalpy (H)
  6. a process that releases heat to its surroundings
    exothermic process
  7. energy that transfers from one object to another because of a temperature difference between the objects
    Heat (q)
  8. the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of an object exactly 1°C
    heat capacity
  9. the heat of reaction for the complete burning of one mole of a substance
    heat of combustion
  10. the enthalpy change for a chemical equation exactly as it is written
    heat of reaction
  11. if you add two or more thermochemical equations to give a final equation, then you also add the heats of reaction to give the final heat of reaction
    Hess’s law of heat summation
  12. in any chemical or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed
    law of conservation of energy
  13. the amount of heat released by one mole of a vapor as it condenses to a liquid at a constant temperature
    molar heat of condensation (ΔHcond)
  14. the amount of heat absorbed by one mole of a solid substance as it melts to a liquid at a constant temperature
    molar heat of fusion (ΔHfus)
  15. the amount of heat lost by one mole of a liquid as it solidifies at a constant temperature
    molar heat of solidification (ΔHsolid)
  16. the enthalpy change caused by the dissolution of one mole of a substance
    molar heat of solution (ΔHsoln)
  17. the amount of heat absorbed by one mole of a liquid as it vaporizes at a constant temperature
    molar heat of vaporization (ΔHvap)
  18. the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 g of a substance 1°C; also called specific heat capacity
    specific heat
  19. the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements with all substances in their standard states at 25°C
    standard heat of formation (ΔHf0)
  20. everything in the universe outside of the system
    surroundings
  21. a part of the universe on which you focus your attention
    system
  22. a chemical equation that includes the enthalpy change
    thermochemical equation
  23. the study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state
    thermochemistry
  24. Calories
    1 Calorie = 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories
  25. Specific Heat
  26. heat of a system
    qsys= ΔH = −qsurr= −m× C× ΔT
  27. Standard heat of formation
    ΔH0= ΔHf0(products) − ΔHf0(reactants)
  28. 17.1 The Flow of Energy—Heat and Work
    • Heat always flows from a warmer object to a cooler object.Hint
    • A system gains heat in an endothermic process, and loses heat in an exothermic process.Hint
    • Heat flow is measured with two common units, the calorie and the joule.Hint
    • The heat capacity of an object depends on both its mass and its chemical composition. Hint
  29. 17.2 Measuring and Expressing Enthalpy Changes
    • In calorimetry, the heat released by a system equals the heat absorbed by its surroundings. Conversely, the heat absorbed by a system equals the heat released by its surroundings.Hint
    • The enthalpy change for a reaction can be treated like any other reactant or product.Hint
  30. 17.3 Heat in Changes of State
    • The heat absorbed by a melting solid is exactly the same as the heat lost when the liquid solidifies; that is, ΔHfus= −ΔHsolid. Hint
    • The heat absorbed by a vaporizing liquid is exactly the same as the heat lost when the vapor condenses; that is, ΔHvap= −ΔHcond.Hint
    • Heat is either released or absorbed during the formation of a solution.Hint
  31. 17.4 Calculating Heats of Reaction
    • You can calculate the heat of a reaction by applying Hess’s law of heat summationHint
    • or by using standard heats of formation.
  32. Cal to Joule
    4.184 J = 1 cal
  33. To calculate the specific heat (C) of a substance, you divide the heat input by the temperature change times the mass of the substance.

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