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  1. Alliteration
    • Repetition of a sound at
    • the beginnings of words in close proximity
  2. Allusion
    • Reference to a person,
    • event, or idea from history, culture, or another text
  3. Apostrophe
    • “A rhetorical figure in which the speaker
    • addresses a dead or absent person, or an abstraction or inanimate object”
    • (Baldick).
  4. Aside
    • “A short speech or remark spoken by a character in a
    • drama, directed either to the audience or to another character, which by convention is supposed to be
    • inaudible to the other characters on stage” (Baldick).
  5. Assonance
    • Repetition
    • of a vowel sound within words in close proximity
  6. Consonance
    • Consonance          Repetition of a consonant sound
    • within words in close proximity
  7. Dramatic
    • “A similar sense of detached superiority is achieved by dramatic irony, in which            the
    • audience knows more about a character's situation than the character does,      foreseeing an outcome contrary to the
    • character's expectations, and thus ascribing
    • a sharply different sense to some of the character's own statements”             (Baldick).
  8. Enjambment
    • The running over of the sense and grammatical structure
    • from one verse line or                                       couplet
    • to the next without a punctuated pause. In an enjambed line (also called                                          a ‘run-on line’), the
    • completion of a phrase, clause, or sentence is held over to                                             the
    • following line so that the line ending is not emphasized as it is in an end-                                        stopped line” (Baldick).
  9. Epic
    • An extended simile elaborated in such detail or at such length as to
    • eclipse temporarily                          the
    • main action of a narrative work, forming a decorative
    • digression. Usually it compares                               one complex action
    • (rather than a simple quality or thing) with another: for example, the                             approach of an army
    • with the onset of storm-clouds. Sometimes called a Homeric simile                  after
    • its frequent use in Homer's epic
    • poems, it was also used by Virgil, Milton,
    • and                                others
    • in their literary epics”
    • (Baldick).
  10. Epitheton
    • The use of an adjective
    • or adjective phrase in conjunction with a name to reveal a characteristic trait
    • (epithet) 

    • “The Homeric epithet is
    • an adjective (usually a compound adjective) repeatedly used for the same thing
    • or person: the
    • wine-dark sea and rosy-fingered Dawn are
    • famous examples” (Baldick).
  11. Foil
    A character whose qualities or actions serve to emphasize those of the protagonist (or of some other character) by providing a strong contrast with them” (Baldick).
  12. Litotes
    • “A figure of speech by which an
    • affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite, usually with an effect
    • of understatement: common examples are no mean feat and not
    • averse to a drink” (Baldick).
  13. Malapropism
    A confused, comically inaccurate use of a long word or words” (Baldick).
  14. Meter
    • “The pattern of measured
    • sound‐units recurring more or less regularly in lines of verse”
  15. Personification
    • “A figure of speech by which
    • animals, abstract ideas, or inanimate things are                                          referred to as if they were
    • human” (Baldick).
  16. Rhyme
    he ordered pattern of rhymes at the ends of the lines of a poem or verse.
  17. Sight Rhyme
    a similarity between words in spelling but not in pronunciation, e.g., love and move.
  18. Slant
    Rhyme/Half Rhyme
    Half rhyme is one of the major poetic devices. It is also called an imperfect rhyme, slant rhyme, near rhyme or oblique rhyme. It can be defined as a rhyme in which the stressed syllables of ending consonants match, however the preceding vowel sounds do not match.
  19. Soliloquy
    • Soliloquy    “A dramatic speech uttered by one character speaking aloud while alone on
    • the stage (or                        while under the impression of being
    • alone). The soliloquist
    • thus reveals his or her inner
  20. Sonnet
    • “A lyric poem comprising fourteen
    • rhyming lines of equal length: iambic pentameters in                          English . . . . The rhyme schemes of the sonnet follow two basic
    • patterns.

    • 1. The Italian
    • sonnet (also
    • called the Petrarchan sonnet after the
    • most influential of the Italian sonneteers)
    • comprises an 8‐line ‘octave’ of two quatrains, rhymed abbaabba,
    • followed by a 6‐line ‘sestet’ usually
    • rhymed cdecde or cdcdcd. The transition from octave to sestet
    • usually coincides with a ‘turn’ (Italian, volta) in the argument or mood
    • of the poem. In a variant form used by the English poet John Milton, however,
    • the ‘turn’ is delayed to a later position around the tenth line.
  21. 2. The
    English sonnet
    (also called the Shakespearean sonnet
    after its foremost practitioner) comprises three quatrains and a final couplet,
    rhyming ababcdcdefefgg. An important variant of this is the Spenserian sonnet (introduced by
    the Elizabethan poet Edmund Spenser), which links the three quatrains by rhyme,
    in the sequence ababbabccdcdee. In either form, the ‘turn’ comes with
    the final couplet, which may sometimes achieve the neatness of an epigram” (Baldick).
  22. Stanza
    • A group of verse lines forming a section of a poem and
    • sharing the same structure as all                        or
    • some of the other sections of the same poem, in terms of the lengths of its
    • lines,                           its metre, and usually its rhyme scheme. In printed
    • poems, stanzas are separated by                                   spaces”
    • (Baldick).
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