Audio Fundamentals Final
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What does MIDI stand for and what is for?
Musical Instrument Digital Interface.
control data that can be used to create or playback audio
What are MIDI controllers?
devices that generate MIDI data
What is a sequencer?
Records and plays back MIDI data.
MIDI Interfaces have at least 1 port with an input and an output connection, and many have a ________ connection that...
- passes the Input signal back out so that modules can be “daisy chained”.
Each MIDI port can transmit ___ channels of data.
What are the two types of MIDI data (messages)? What do they include?
- Channel messages: -Note #, on, off, velocity. -Control change. -program change. -channel modes.
- system messages: -System common. -system exclusive. -system real time.
What is MMC?
MIDI Machine Control: a system exclusive message designed to control audio or video tape machines.
What is MSC?
MIDI Show Control: a Real time System Exclusive message designed to control lighting and other live show elements.
What is MTC?
MIDI Time Code: a system exclusive message carrying a version of SMPTE/EBU time code information for synchronization.
What is HUI?
a communication protocol that allows audio consoles to communicate with DAWs.
What is Faraday's law?
Any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage (emf) to be "induced" in the coil.
What is head stack?
determines the number of individual tracks that can be recorded on a piece of tape of a given width.
The _______ the track width the _______ the available dynamic range
Describe the difference between 1/4", 1/2", 1", and 2" tape.
- 1/4": single through 4-track
- 1/2" – Used initially for multi-track. Now the standard MASTERING size for stereo mixes.
- 1": Multi-track 8 to 24 tracks. Originally pro ; moved to semi-pro.
- 2": Standard for 8, 16, 24 track.
What are the three heads of analog recorders in order?
Earse, Record, Reproduce
Les Paul created...
Why does Analog have a different sound than digital?
The “warmth” of analog tape is the result of frequency response abnormalities, noise, phase shift, pitch shift and distortion– much are the result of “tape compression.”
What are the tape speeds and which is better?
- 15 and 30 ips (inches per second).
- The faster the speed, the greater the signal-to-noise ratio (higher speed = less hiss)
What is PCM?
The most common system for digital audio is PCM Pulse Code Modulation.
capturing the time/amplitude wave at a frequency.
What is Nyquist's Law?
Sampling frequency must be twice the highest sound.
Sampling frequency determines...
The bandwidth (highest audio frequency) that can be digitized.
Increasing the sampling frequency does NOT improve the ________, it DOES increase the ________.
The standard sampling frequency and bit rate for CDs is...
44.1 kHz and 16 bit
What is Quantization?
digital systems must also represent the voltage of each sample. The measurement must be expressed in binary numbers. This is done by the Analog to Digital Converter.
What is bit depth and what does it affect?
The number of bits used is called the word length or bit depth. The more bits available to express the measurement the finer the resolution.
Sound for picture sampling frequency is...
The system gains a little over ___ dB per bit of the dynamic range.
- (16 bits = 96 dB
- 20 bits = 120 dB
- 24 bits = 144 dB)
What is AES?
- Digital Input/Output connector
- AES/EBU (Audio engineering Society European Broadcast Union): Professional. 2 channels, one way, XLR3 connector, up to 24 bits @ 44.1 or 48 kHz sampling.
What is SPDIF?
- Digital Ibput/Output connector.
- S-PDIF (Sony-Phillips Digital Interface) or IECII (International Electrotechnical Commission): Consumer version of AES/EBU. 2 channels on RCA type coaxial cable or Toslink optical.
Lossy files use...
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