All the required chapters we've covered up to date (excluding chapters 3-5, 7)
A legally binding directive issued by the president (with the intent to change the manner in which federal agencies and officials operate so as to improve the practices of the federal government.)
Meaning "To stand on decided cases." is the practice of relying on previous decision in which similar disputes arose.
The body of recorded decisions that courts refer to and rely upon when making later legal decisions.
A model case that a court can follow when facing a similar situation.
The effects of court decisions that involve the same or similar facts.
The field of law involving statues, which are laws passed by Congress or by state legislatures.
A law that is passed by a local government, such as a city council.
The body of rules, regulations, and decisions created by administrative agencies.
Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)
A set of laws that govern various commercial transactions and that are designed to bring uniformity to the laws of the states
The "law" concerned with the unenforceable obligations that people have to one another.
The authority of a court, as granted by a constitution or legislative act, to hear and decide cases.
Ex: Family Courts, traffic courts and tax courts
A federal statute that placed an onus on upper management to monitor closely the financial dealings and disclosures of their firms and that established a board to oversee accounting practices in the United States.
The philosophical study of what is right and wrong, good and bad.
Beliefs about behavior as judged by society.
Beliefs or standards considered worthwhile, and from which a society derives its moral rules.
The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterize a social, racial, religious, or corporate group.
An ethnic, economic, regional, religious, or social group with attitudes or behaviors that distinguish it from others within a larger culture.
Code of ethics
A set of rules that a company or other group adopts to express principles of ethical behavior that are expected of its personnel.
People or groups who may be affected by a firm's actions or decisions.
An employee who discloses to the government, media, or upper management that the company is involved in wrongful or illegal activities.
A governmental body responsible for the control and supervision of a particular activity or area of public interest.
The branch of a government body that consists of elected representatives who have the responsibility for passing laws that represent the will of the people.
The branch of a government body that consists of an elected executive, including his or her appointed staff.
The branch of a government body that determines if there have been violations of the law and interprets the law if there are questions about what the law means in particular situations.
An order requiring the recipient to appear at a legal proceeding to provide testimony.
A trial-like judicial proceeding, without a jury, in which an administrative agency rules on matters of the law that the agency is charged with enforcing.
Request for proposal
A request for an offer or an invitation to negotiate that can be accepted or rejected by the person calling for a bid.
Invitation to trade
An announcement published for the purpose of creating interest and attracting a response by many people.
It is not considered a valid offer because it does not contain sufficient words of commitment to sell.
A general offer to the public at large.
A rule that states that an acceptance sent via the postal system or by courier is effective when sent.
A response to an offer in which the terms and conditions of the original offer are changed.
Termination by lapse of time
When an opportunity to form a contract ends because the offeree fails to accept an offer within the time specified.
The calling back of an offer by the offeror before the offer has been accepted or rejected.
The express or implied refusal by an oferee to accept an offer.
A contract that has a provision to keep an offer open for a certain period of time.
The intentional misstatement or nondisclosure of a material (essential) fact made by one party in an attempt to influence the actions of another party.
A general expression of opinion, typically in a sales context, that is used to persuade a prospective purchaser to buy. It does not constitute a misrepresentation of material text.
A misstatement or nondisclosure of a material fact that results in inducing another to enter into an agreement to his or her loss.
A belief that is not in accord with the facts.
The improper use of excessive pressure by the dominant member of a confidential relationship to convince the weaker party to enter a contract that greatly benefits the dominant party.
The act of applying unlawful or improper pressure or influence to a person to gain his or her agreement to a contract.
A contract drawn by one party that must be accepted as is on a take-it-or-leave-it basis.
A contract that is so one-sided that it is oppressive and gives unfair advantage to one of the parties.
The promise to refrain from doing something that a party has a legal right to do.
In the making of a contract, the party who makes a promise.
In the making of a contract, the party to whom a promise is made.
A promise to donate money to a church, temple, mosque, hospital, college, cultural institution, or other charitable organization.
Statutes that permit a person who has a claim against another to give up, or release, his or her claim without an exchange of consideration by making a written statement to that effect.
A promise to pay an existing debt or to obey the law, or a similar promise of something already owed.
An obligation that a party is already bound to by law or by some other agreement. The party may not use this as consideration in a new contract.
A promise that does not require some benefit in return.
One that consists of an indefinite, open-ended statement purporting to be an agreement
Something that a person is not legally bound to do but that he or she may feel bound to do because of love, friendship, honor, sympathy, conscience, or other reason.
A promise to repay someone for a benefit after it has been received.
A person of legal age and at least normal mentality who is considered by law to be capable of understanding the meaning of a contract and is permitted to enter into a valid contract.
The ability to make a valid contract.
A person who has not yet reached the age of majority.
Age of majority
The age at which a person is legally recognized as an adult and is bound by the terms of his or her contract.
Coming of age rule
In common law, the view that a person's legal birthday is 12:01 a.m. of the day before his or her actual birthday.
The modern view that a person attains a given age on the anniversary date of his or her birth.
In contract law, to indicate by a statement or act an intent not to live up to the terms of a contract.
Goods and services that are essential to a minor's health and welfare.
An approval of a contract made by a minor after reaching majority.
In contract law, the condition that exists when minors are no longer under the control of their parents and are responsible for their contracts.
In contract law, the condition that exists when a minor has left home and given up all rights to parental support.
Being unable to make binding contracts due to having an unsound mind and being unable to safeguard one's own interests and affairs.
Parol evidence rule
The rule that any spoken or written words in conflict with what the written contract states cannot be introduced as evidence in a court of law.
Statute of Frauds
A law requiring certain contracts to be in writing to be enforceable.
A personal representative named in a will to handle matters involving the estate of a deceased person.
A personal representative named by the court to perform as the executor would in instances in which the deceased person has not left a will.
A promise to pay the debts or settle the wrongdoings of another if he or she does not make settlement personally.
Antenuptial or prenuptial agreement
An exchange of promises made by a persons planning to marry.
A sale in which goods are sold to the highest bidder.