Bio2020 Lab Practical #2

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Bio2020 Lab Practical #2
2014-05-31 23:02:55
Bio2020 Lab Practical
Bio2020 Lab Practical #2
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  1. Cortex & Medulla-
    Cortex : filters blood + removes waste 

    Medulla : maintains the balance of water + salt in blood.
  2. Capsule
    Bowman's capsule/ Glomerular : holds together the glomerulus
  3. Ureter
    delivers urine to the bladder.
  4. Renal vein and artery
    - Renal vein : transport blood away from the kidneys.

    - Renal artery : transports blood towards the kidney
  5. Renal Pelvis
    Collects urine + channeling it into the ureters
  6. Renal Pyramids
    consists of tubule that transports urine from the coricol part of the kidney.
  7. Renal Columns
    Separates adjacent pyramids; it contains vessels + urinary tubes that run to the cortex.
  8. Calyx
    urine is passed from the kidney to the bladder
  9. Renal hilum
    it's a fissure in the kidneys where the renal arteries enter and the veins and ureters exit the kidney.
  10. As filtrate passes through the nephron the renal process of reabsorption describes
    The movement of water and solutes from the tubule lumen into the interstitial space and finally into the peritubular capillaries
  11. The maximum solute concentration refers to the amount of solutes
    In the interstitial space
  12. Antidiuretic hormone affects the permeability of
    The collecting duct
  13. ADH aids the reabsorption of
  14. Tubule fluid osmolarity will always be the greatest in which of these locations?
    The bottom of the Loop of Henley
  15. Tubule fluid volume will always be the greatest in which of these locations?
    The proximal convoluted tubule
  16. Where does ADH directly alter the urine volume
    In the collecting duct
  17. Which of the following has a role in altering the urine volume and concentration
    ADH, aldosterone, the total solute concentration gradient in the interstitial space surrounding the tubule lumen
  18. the total solute concentration surrounding tubule lumen refers to the solutes in
    the interstitial space
  19. Aldosterone is produced in the
    adrenal cortex
  20. ADH promotes the renal reabsorption of
  21. Aldosterone promote renal reabsorption of ____ and secretion of ____
    NaCl, and potassium
  22. If there has been a significant loss of fluid form the body, the kidney will generate ____ urine
  23. If you drink a large volume of water, the kidneys will generate ___ urine
  24. In response to dehydration, ADH will be released from the
    posterior pituitary glands
  25. In resonse to abnormally low plasma osmolarity, aldosterone will increase
    sodium reabsorption along the distal tubule along the collecting duct.
  26. T/F insulin is a hormone secreted from the beta cells of the endocrine portion of the pancreas
  27. T/F insulin promotes the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen
  28. T/F insulin decreases plasma glucose level
  29. T/F Insulin is a hormone secreted into the stomach to aid with starch digestion
  30. How are plasma glucose level controlled?
    by the opposing actions of insulin and glucagon
  31. Where can plasma glucose be converted into glycogen stores?
    in liver and muscle cells
  32. What is the primary fuel for nerve cell metabolism?
  33. A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus implies
    the pancreas is not producing enough insulin
  34. A diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus implies that
    the cells of the body are unresponsive to circulating insulin.
  35. Glucagon is a hormone that...
    opposes the action of insulin.

    vice versa for glycogen
  36. Cortisol
    is a hormone important in the body's responds to stress
  37. ACTH
    tropic hormone that stimulates cortisol release
  38. CRH has a ...
    tropic effect on the anterior pituitary
  39. Cushing's syndrome refers to
    hypercortisolism which could be iatrogenic
  40. A condition of hypocortisolism
    refers to low levels of cortisol
  41. T/F Anabolism refers to the chemical reactions that build larger, more complex molecules
  42. T/F Catabolism refers to chemical reactions that break down large complex molecules into smaller molecules
  43. T/F Energy released in metabolism can be in the form of heat
  44. T/F all of the energy from metabolism is ultimately stored in the chemical bonds of ATP
  45. Thyroxine is
    the most important hormone for maintaining the metabolic rate and body temperature
  46. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is
    produced in the pituitary gland
  47. An injection of TSH to an otherwise normal animal will cause which of the following. 
    - decreased levels of T4 secretion 
    - increased levels of TRH secretion 
    - hypothyroidism 
    - goiter development
    Goiter development
  48. Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) is secreted from the what?
  49. What does the hypothalamus primarily secrete?
    tropic hormones that stimulate the secretion of other hormones.
  50. Know the difference between juxtamedullary and cortical nephrons and why they exist.
    - Cortical nephrons: Short nephron loop. Glomerulus further from the cortex-medulla junction. Efferent arteriole supplies the peritubular capillaries.

    - Juxtamedullary nephron: Long nephron loop. Glomerulus closer to the cortex-medulla junction. Efferent arteriole supplies vasa recta.
  51. Identify effects of vasodilation and vasoconstriction on glomerular filtration rate.
    pg. 966
  52. What are the four types of signals and what are they considered as?

    Name some examples of each type of cell!
    - Signals are chemicals!

    • - Amacrine: A signal that is produced by a cell that affects the same cell.
    • - Paracrine: A signal that is produced by a cell that affects closely neighboring cells
    • - Endocrine: A signal that is produced by a cell that travels through the blood to affect distant cellular targets within the body.
    • - Exocrine: A signal that is produced by a cell that travels through the blood to the surface of the body. The cellular targets are outside of the body.

    • - The retina contains amacrine cells. 
    • - somatostatin released by one population of pancreatic cells inhibits the release of insulin by different population of pancreatic cells. (paracrine)
  53. Know the general histology of mucus membranes and how it varies in different parts of alimentary canal.
    • - The mucosa (mucous membrane) is the innermost layer of the membrane. Functions include secretion of mucus, digestive enzymes and hormones. Absorbs the end products of digestion into the blood and protects infectious diseases. It's simple columnar epithelium. 
    • - The submucosa : external to the mucosa and is areolar connective tissue containing rich supply of blood and lymphatic vessels which helps supply the surrounding GI tract wall
    • - The muscularis externa : responsible for segmentation and peristalsis. Forms the sphincters that act as valves to control food passage from one organ to the next and prevents back flow. 
    • - The serosa : outermost layer and is formed of aereolar connective tissue.
  54. In the abdominal cavity identify and know functions for: liver, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, small (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and large intestine, cecum, rectum, spleen, peritoneum, mesentery and omentum.
    • - Liver and gallbladder : accessory organs. Liver produces bile which is a fat emulsifier, for export to the duodenum and the bile is stored in the gallbladder. 
    • - Pancreas : produces enzymes that break down all categories of foodstuff. "Pancreatic juice" 
    • - Stomach : chyme
    • - Small intestines : Mechanical breakdown and propulsion. Absorption: breakdown products of carbohydrate protein and fat. 
    • - Large intestines : Digestion with remaining food. Absorbs most water, electrolytes and vitamins. defecation eliminates feces from the body.