DAT some Biodiversity/taxonomy and Plants

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DAT some Biodiversity/taxonomy and Plants
2014-05-30 11:11:13
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DAT Biodiversity taxonomy plants
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  2. Euglenoids -
    1 to 3 flagella.
  3. Dinoflagellates -
    2 flagella. Some bioluminescent. Others produce toxin concentrates inshellfish.
  4. Diatoms -
    have silica shells that fit together like box with lid
  5. Rhizopoda -
    amoebas that moves by extending pseudopods
  6. Foraminifera -
    made up of calcium carbonate
  7. Apicomplexans -
    parasites of animals.
  8. Oomycota Fungus -
    water molds, mildew, whit rusts. Form filaments, lack septa so they are
  9. Slim molds fungus -
    plasmodial or cellular.
  10. Mycelium
    Mass of hyphae
  11. Coenocytic
    Some lack septa, so they are multi nucleated.
  12. Plasmogamy -
    fusion of cells from two different fungal strain to produce single cell with twonuclei
  13. Karyogamy -
    fusion of two haploid nuclei of dikaryon to form single diploid nucleus
  14. Meiosis -
    diploid nucleus restores to haploid condition. Germinates and forms haploid hyphae
  15. Conidia spores-
    formed at tips of specialized hyphae, not enclosed in a sack
  16. Sporangiospores -
    produced in sacklike capsules
  17. Zygomycota -
    lack septa. Reproduce sexually. Bread mold
  18. Glomeromycota -
    mutualistic relationship with roots of plants
  19. Ascomycota -
    have septa. Yeast, truffles
  20. Basidiomycota -
    have septa. Mushrooms
  21. Deuteromycota -
    imperfect fungi. artificial group. Penicillium
  22. Lichens -
    Mutualistic relationship btwn fungi and algae.
  23. Gametophytes.
    Male antheridium produce flagellated sperm that swim to fertilize female archegonium
  24. Tracheophytes
    vascular plants
  25. Lycophyta -
    club moss.
  26. Pterophyta -
  27. Microsprangium -
    produce male spores
  28. Macrosprangium -
    produce female spores
  29. Stamen made from
    made from anther, stalk, and filament
  30. Sepals function-
    aka petals. Function to attract pollinators
  31. The coelom
    Fluid filled body cavity arising from the mesoderm
  32. Acoelomates
    Primitive animals that have no coelom.
  33. Psudocolomates
  34. Coelomates
    Animals having coelom
  35. Protosomes
    1st opening forms the mouth
  36. Deuterostomes
    1st opening forms the anus. 2nd forms the mouth.
  37. Porifera
  38. Fungi Water drawn through
    spongocoel by coenocytes (cells having cillia).
  39. Amoebocytes takes food from
    coenocytes and distributes them.
  40. sponge Water exits through
  41. Cnidarians
    Jellyfish, corals, hydrozoans, sea anemones
  42. Cnidarians Two body forms -
    medusa (floating umbrella-shaped body typical of jellyfish) or polyp (sessilecylinder shaped)
  43. Acolomates.
  44. Platyhelminthes
    flat worms (ie tapeworm)
  45. Cindocytes -
    stinging cells
  46. Nematoda
    Round worms
  47. Nematoda coelom?
    Protostomic psudocolomate
  48. Annilida
    segmented worms
  49. Annilida coelom?
    Protostomic cholomate
  50. annilida circulatory system
    open circulatory system
  51. Annelida nephridia
    nephridia which expells nitrogenous waste
  52. Molluska
    Snails, cuttlefish, squid, octopus
  53. Molluska coelom and circulatory system?
    • Open circulatory system with large opening called hemocoel
    • Protostomic colomate
  54. Arthropod
    Insects, spiders
  55. Arthropod waste and circulatory
    • -Malpighian tube to remove Nitric acid waste
    • -Open circulatory system
  56. arthoropod exoskeleton made of
  57. Echinoderm
    Starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars
  58. Deuterostomes?
    Echinoderms and Chordates
  59. Chordate 4 features
    • 1)Dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • 2)Pharyngeal gill slits
    • 3)Notochord arised from mesoderm
    • 4)Tail
  60. Dicots 4 features
    • 1) 2 cotyledons (storage tissue that provide nutrients to teh developing seedling)
    • 2)Netted leaf venation
    • 3)Circular vascular bundles (xylem and phloem) in stems
    • 4)Taproot (single large root)
  61. Monocots four features
    • 1) 1 cotyledons
    • 2) Parallel leaf venation
    • 3) Scattered vascular bundles
    • 4) Fibrous root (cluster of many roots)
  62. Plant tissues 3 groups
    ground tissue, dermal tissue, vascular tissue
  63. plant ground tissue
    • 1) Parenchyma - most common. Thin walls. Storage, photosynthesis, secretion
    • 2) Collenchyma - thick but flexible cell walls. Mechanical support
    • 3) Sclerenchyma - thick cell walls. Mechanical support
  64. Plant: Dermal tissues
    Epidermis cells that cover the ouside of plant parts. Guard cells, hair cells, stinign cells, glandularcells
  65. Plant Vascular tissue
    Xylem and phloem. usually occurs together in vascular bundle
  66. Phloem -
    conduction of sugars.
  67. Xylem -
    water and mineral conduction.
  68. Epicotyl -
    top portion of the embryo
  69. Hypocotyl -
    becomes the young shoot
  70. Cotyladon -
    endosperm (major storage material) E.G. Peas have two halves so they are dicots
  71. imbibtion
    (absorption) of water swells and cracks the seed cloat.
  72. Growth occurs at the tip of roots and shoots called
    apical meristems
  73. For roots Meristematic cells actively divide protected by
    root cap.
  74. Zone of cell division -
    actively dividing cells of the meristem
  75. Zone of elongation -
    elongation of tip. Perception of growth occurs due to this region
  76. Zone of maturation - forms...
    xylem, phloem, parenchyma (epidermal cells)
  77. Plants Primary Growth
    growth occuring at the apical meristems. Increase length of shoot or root. E.G. primary xylem,phloem
  78. Secondary Growth
    growth that increase the girth.
  79. ----------- responsible for growth. Makes----
    Vascular cambium and cork cambium responsible for growth. Makes secondary xylem and phloem
  80. Root Epidermis
    Lines the outside surface of root.
  81. plant epidermis function
    Protection and absorption (may increase absorption by producing root hairs)
  82. Plant Cortex
    Bulk of the root. Storage of starch
  83. Plant Endodermis
    Ring of tightly packed cells at the innermost portion of cortex.
  84. Plant Endodermis contains -------- that ------
    Contains casparian strip around the packed cells to control water flow into, but not out of thecortex
  85. Plant Vascular cylinder
    Tissues of the endodermis. Xylem, phloem, endodermal cells
  86. Primary structure of the stem
    same as root, except for lack of casparian strip, instead cutin forms in the epidermis for protection
  87. Leaf Epidermis
    Protective covering covered by cuticle (protective layer consisting of waxy material cutin). ReduceH2O loss
  88. Leaf Palisade mesophyll
    Cells with large surface areas specializing in photosynthesis
  89. Leaf Spongy mesophyll
    Paranchyma cells with numerous intercellular space that provide air chambers for CO2 and O2 exchange
  90. Guard cells
    Specialized epidermal cells that control opening and closing of stomata (opening allowing for gasexchange)
  91. Vascular bundles
    "leaf veins" Composed of xylem, phloem, bundle sheath cells
  92. Leaf water transportation (5)
    • 1) Osmosis
    • 2) Capillary Action
    • 3) Transpiration
    • 4) Cohesion
    • 5) Bulk flow
  93. Transpiration
    evaporation of water from plant leaves create negative pressure to pull water up
  94. Cohesion-tension theory (3)
    transpiration, cohesion, and bulk flow
  95. Plant Cohesion
    Btwn water molecules to create a polymerlike water train from root to leaves
  96. When do guard cells operate?
    • Close when temp are high
    • Open when CO2 low inside leaf allows for photosynthesis to continue
  97. sieve-tube
    tube that transports sugar in plants
  98. sugar transportation process
    1) sugar active transport into sieve tube members 2) Water follows (osmosis) sugar into sieve tube members 3) pressure increases, water and sugar move to sink 4) pressure reduced at sink because sugar active transport out resulting in water osmosis out.
  99. source vs sink
    • sink= sugar converted to starch (like roots)
    • source = starch converted to sugar
  100. Auxin (IAA)
    promote plant growth by facilitating elongation of developing cells
  101. Gibberlins
    Promote cell growth, flowering, stem elongation
  102. Cytokinins
    Promote cytokinesis (cell division)
  103. Ethylene
    Promote fruit ripening
  104. Abscisic acid (ABA)
    Growth inhibitor in plants
  105. Thigmotropism
    Touch. E.G. climbing plants
  106. Gravitropism (aka geotropism)
    plant response to gravity with auxins and gibberlins
  107. Phototropism
    Plant Light response with auxin
  108. Photoperiodism
    Response due to change in phtoperiod (length of day/night) with phytochrome