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Open circulatory system
Pump blood into an internal cavity called hemocoel which tissues are bathed in. The fluid is called hemolymph.
open circulatory examples?
Insects and mollusks
Closed circulatory system
Blood is confined to vessels
closed circulatory examples
Annelida, certain mollusks such as octopuses and squids, and vertebrates
Found in cytoplasm of protists. Release water into environment by exocitosis.
Flame cells (protonephridia)
Platyhelminthes (flat worm)
Annelids (segmented worms)
Arthropods. Nitric acid solid waste.
- Ammonia -> Urea.
- Less toxic, require less H2O to excrete.
Salvary amylase. Starch -> maltose. Mechanical breakdown
Epiglottis blocks trachea so bolus can pass
Peristaltis moves bolus into stomach
Stomach Chemical breakdown
Pepsinogen -> Pepsin - break down proteinsPepsin may cause peptic ulcers if mucus membrane breaks down
stomach physical breakdown
churning and HCL
Walls contain many digestive enzymes such as maltase, lactase, aminopeptidase, and phosphatase(nucleotide digest)
Trypsin, chymotrypsin (proteases)Lipase (fat digestion)Pancreateic amylase (starch digestion). Secretes into duodenum
Bile - emulsifies fat into smaller fat droplets. Does not digest food (not an enzyme). Stored in gall bladder and released into duodenum
Ilium and Jijunum digestion
use --------- and -------
Absorbs the digested food through villi and microvilli
Ilium and Jijunum digestion. What goes where?
- AA, sugar, and nucleotides are absorbed into the bood capillaries
- Fatty acids and glycerol absorbed into the lymph system
Large intestine digestion
Reabsorb water to form solid waste (feces)
Produced by cells of the stomach lining when food enters the stomach or stimulated by smell.Stimulate gastric juice production
Produced by cell lining of the duodenum when food enters. Stimulate bicarbonate production
Produced by small intestine in the presence of fats. Stimulates bile release and pancreaseenzymes.
Myelin is -------- and is created by ---------
- 1) Insulation for neurons.
- 2)Created by Schwann cells in PNS and oligodendrocytes in CNS
causes saltitory conduction, increase transmission speed.
EPSP vs IPSP
- If Na+ channels open -> excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
- If K+ channels open -> inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
Central nervous system
Brain, spinal cord
Sensory neurons and motor neurons
Two divisions of motor neurons
- 1) Somatic nervous system
- 2) autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Directs contraction of skeletal muscles. Voluntary
Autonomic nervous system
Controls activitiees of organs and other involuntary muscles
two divisions of autonomic nervous system and their functions
- 1)Sympathetic Fight or flight
- 2)Parasympathetic Rest or digest
Plasma membrane of the muscle cell. Highly invaginated by transvers tubules (T tubules)
Cytoplasm of the muscle cell. Contain Ca++ storing sarcoplasmic reticulum.
- thin filament (actin)
- thick filament (myosin)
myofibril Thin filament
- Two strands of actin in a double helix
- Troponin with Ca++ binding sites dot the length of tropomyosin
myofibril Thick filament
groups of filamentous protein myosin with protuding head
- 1) ATP bind-> ADP+ Pi (head cock)
- 2) Ca++ expose binding sites on actin
- 3) Myosin head bind to actin
- 4) ADP released=sliding of actin
- 5) ATP bind to head= myosin unattaches
Ca++ action in muscle contraction
Ca2+ bind to troponin molecule causing tropomyosin to expose positions on actin filaments
Posterior pituitary hormones
- 1) ADH (increase water retention in collecting tubule)
- 2) Oxytosin (increase uterine contraction during labor and milk let down)
1) ACTH 2) LH 3) FSH 4) TSH 5) Prolactin
(adrenal cortcotropic hormone) stress response to stimulate increase in blood glucose
(thyroid stimulating hormone) stimulates thyroid
(production of milk)
1) ADH 2) OXytosin 3) GnRH
(gonatoropin releasing hormone)
- Steroid hormones
- Mineralcorticoids = Aldosterone
- Glucocorticoids =Cortisol (increase blood glucose)
- Peptide hormones
- Insulin - decrease blood glucose (beta islet cells)
- Glucacon - increase bood glucose (alpha islet cells)
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
- 1) Tyrosine derivatives
- T4(thyroxine) and T3 to stimulate metabolism
- 2) Calcitonin (Decrease blood Ca++ level)
PTH (increase blood Ca++ level)