DAT Animal Form and Function

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DAT Animal Form and Function
2014-05-30 12:06:14
DAT Animal Form Function
DAT Animal Form and Function
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  1. Open circulatory system
    Pump blood into an internal cavity called hemocoel which tissues are bathed in. The fluid is called hemolymph.
  2. open circulatory examples?
    Insects and mollusks
  3. Closed circulatory system
    Blood is confined to vessels
  4. closed circulatory examples
    Annelida, certain mollusks such as octopuses and squids, and vertebrates
  5. Contractile vacuoles
    Found in cytoplasm of protists. Release water into environment by exocitosis.
  6. Flame cells (protonephridia)
    Platyhelminthes (flat worm)
  7. Nephridia
    Annelids (segmented worms)
  8. Malpighian tubules
    Arthropods. Nitric acid solid waste.
  9. Kidney
    • Ammonia -> Urea.
    • Less toxic, require less H2O to excrete.
  10. Mouth digestion
    Salvary amylase. Starch -> maltose. Mechanical breakdown
  11. Pharynx digestion
    Epiglottis blocks trachea so bolus can pass
  12. Esophagus pathway
    Peristaltis moves bolus into stomach
  13. Stomach Chemical breakdown
    Pepsinogen -> Pepsin - break down proteinsPepsin may cause peptic ulcers if mucus membrane breaks down
  14. stomach physical breakdown
    churning and HCL
  15. duodenum digestion
    Walls contain many digestive enzymes such as maltase, lactase, aminopeptidase, and phosphatase(nucleotide digest)
  16. Pancrease secretes...
    Trypsin, chymotrypsin (proteases)Lipase (fat digestion)Pancreateic amylase (starch digestion). Secretes into duodenum
  17. Liver produces
    Bile - emulsifies fat into smaller fat droplets. Does not digest food (not an enzyme). Stored in gall bladder and released into duodenum
  18. Ilium and Jijunum digestion
    use --------- and -------
    Absorbs the digested food through villi and microvilli
  19. Ilium and Jijunum digestion. What goes where?
    • AA, sugar, and nucleotides are absorbed into the bood capillaries
    • Fatty acids and glycerol absorbed into the lymph system
  20. Large intestine digestion
    Reabsorb water to form solid waste (feces)
  21. Gastrin
    Produced by cells of the stomach lining when food enters the stomach or stimulated by smell.Stimulate gastric juice production
  22. Secretin
    Produced by cell lining of the duodenum when food enters. Stimulate bicarbonate production
  23. Cholecystokinin
    Produced by small intestine in the presence of fats. Stimulates bile release and pancreaseenzymes.
  24. Myelin is -------- and is created by ---------
    • 1) Insulation for neurons.
    • 2)Created by Schwann cells in PNS and oligodendrocytes in CNS
  25. myelin causes
    causes saltitory conduction, increase transmission speed.
  26. EPSP vs IPSP
    • If Na+ channels open -> excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
    • If K+ channels open -> inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
  27. Central nervous system
    Brain, spinal cord
  28. PNS
    Sensory neurons and motor neurons
  29. Two divisions of motor neurons
    • 1) Somatic nervous system
    • 2) autonomic nervous system
  30. Somatic nervous system
    Directs contraction of skeletal muscles. Voluntary
  31. Autonomic nervous system
    Controls activitiees of organs and other involuntary muscles
  32. two divisions of autonomic nervous system and their functions
    • 1)Sympathetic Fight or flight
    • 2)Parasympathetic Rest or digest
  33. Sarcolemma
    Plasma membrane of the muscle cell. Highly invaginated by transvers tubules (T tubules)
  34. Sarcoplasm
    Cytoplasm of the muscle cell. Contain Ca++ storing sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  35. sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    Ca++ storing
  36. myofibril components
    • thin filament (actin)
    • thick filament (myosin)
  37. myofibril Thin filament
    • Two strands of actin in a double helix
    • Troponin with Ca++ binding sites dot the length of tropomyosin
  38. myofibril Thick filament
    groups of filamentous protein myosin with protuding head
  39. muscle contraction
    • 1) ATP bind-> ADP+ Pi (head cock)
    • 2) Ca++ expose binding sites on actin
    • 3) Myosin head bind to actin
    • 4) ADP released=sliding of actin
    • 5) ATP bind to head= myosin unattaches
  40. Ca++ action in muscle contraction
    Ca2+ bind to troponin molecule causing tropomyosin to expose positions on actin filaments
  41. Posterior pituitary hormones
    • 1) ADH (increase water retention in collecting tubule)
    • 2) Oxytosin (increase uterine contraction during labor and milk let down)
  42. Anterior pituitary
    1) ACTH 2) LH 3) FSH 4) TSH 5) Prolactin
  43. ACTH
    (adrenal cortcotropic hormone) stress response to stimulate increase in blood glucose
  44. TSH
    (thyroid stimulating hormone) stimulates thyroid
  45. Prolactin
    (production of milk)
  46. Hypothalamus produces
    1) ADH 2) OXytosin 3) GnRH
  47. GnRH
    (gonatoropin releasing hormone)
  48. Adrenal cortex
    • Steroid hormones
    • Mineralcorticoids = Aldosterone
    • Glucocorticoids =Cortisol (increase blood glucose)
  49. Pancrease
    • Peptide hormones
    • Insulin - decrease blood glucose (beta islet cells)
    • Glucacon - increase bood glucose (alpha islet cells)
  50. Adrenal medulla
    Epinephrine and norepinephrine
  51. Thyroid
    • 1) Tyrosine derivatives
    • T4(thyroxine) and T3 to stimulate metabolism
    • 2) Calcitonin (Decrease blood Ca++ level)
  52. Parathyroid
    PTH (increase blood Ca++ level)