Psychology week 2 - Chapter 2

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Psychology week 2 - Chapter 2
2014-05-31 22:22:10

Week 2
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  1. psychological research is generally guided by:
    a theory - a systematic way of organising and explaining observatins
  2. Standardised procedures:
    expose participants in a study to as similar procedures as possible.
  3. Theory is
    a systematic way of organising and explaining observations; different schools of thought promoting different theories.
  4. A hypothesis is
    a tentative belief about the way two (or more) variables interact/impact each other
  5. A population is the entire group of people that a researcher is interested in
    the entire group of people that a researcher is interested in
  6. Generalisability refers to
    • whether research results (from the sample) can be applied to the entire population of interest, and requires:
    • Internal validity: Are the procedures of the study sound or are they flawed?
    • External validity:¬†¬†Does the experimental situation resemble the situation found in the real world?
  7. Measures of variables must be:
    • Reliable: Produce consistent measurements over time, or amongst items in a scale of measurement
    • Valid: Actually measure the variable of interest; or is a measure used for the purposes for which it is designe
  8. This scientific approach has three main goals
    • Description = summarising data produced in a way that makes the events and the relationship between them easily understandable.
    • Prediction = using outcome of research to identify what is likely to occur in the future
    • Understanding = identifying the causal factors that led to the results found
  9. Standard Deviation refers to
    the amount that the average participate deviates from the mean of the sample.
  10. What is meant by the 75th percentile
    75 percent of those in this position, under these circumstances, earn less than this amount.