Psychology - multiple choice questions from past exam

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Psychology - multiple choice questions from past exam
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  1. Graded potentials are:  
    a. infrequent.  
    b. cumulative.  
    c. unimportant.  
    d. reflexive.
    B: Cumulative
  2. Biopsychology:  
    a. studies the psychological nature of stress.  
    b. investigates the physical basis of behaviour.  
    c. treats psychological illness.  
    d. studies ESP phenomena
    B: investigates the physical basis of behaviour
  3. In Wernicke's aphasia there is a deficit in:  
    a. language production.  
    b. hearing.
    c. language comprehension.
    d. vision.
    C: Language comprehension
  4. The primary method of behaviourism is:  
    a. introspection.  
    b. the case study.  
    c. the experimental method.
    d. the survey method.
    C: the experimental method
  5. Wundt's favourite method of investigation was called:
    a. introspection.
    b. extrospection.
    c. devospection.
    d. endrospection.
    A: Introspection
  6. People with an Australian background tend to be much more expressive and emotional than people with a Chinese background. The difference in emotional expression is due to:
    a. ethnic disparity.
    b. cultural display rules.
    c. cultural heterogeneity.
    d. emotional divergence.
    • B: Cultural Display Rules
    • Check
  7. Which of the following is not one of the psychodynamic premises?
    a. mental events occur outside of consciousness.
    b. actions are determined by the connections between thoughts and feelings.
    c. social experiences determine the nature of thoughts and feelings.
    d. mental processes may come in conflict and result in compromises.  
    C: Social experiences determine the nature of thoughts and feelings
  8. Schemas:  
    a. play a reconstructive role in memory.  
    b. aid in accurate memory recall.
    c. are invariant.
    d. make life seem like one random event after another
    a: pay a reconstructive role in memory
  9. The preferred method of the psychodynamic psychologist is:
    a. the experimental method.
    b. societal observation.
    c. an intensive case study.
    d. genetic analysis.  
    c: an intensive case study
  10. In real life, memories are stored or retrieved because:
    a. they contribute to our happiness.
    b. they are meaningful and emotionally significant.
    c. we cannot keep from storing and retrieving experiences.
    d. are in the habit of doing so. 
    d: are in the habit of doing so.
  11. Humanistic theories focus on:
    a. overt behaviours.
    b. the evolution of human beings.
    c. unconscious mental processes.
    d.  the uniqueness of the individual
    d: the uniqueness of the individual
  12. Humanistic theorists believe that people:  
    a. are powerless victims of external forces.
    b. reflect the natural world.
    c. are ambitious
    d.  have an innate desire to improve themselves
    d: have an innate desire to improve themselves
  13. The process whereby one node triggers the activation of closely related nodes is known as:
    a. network of association theory.
    b. node activation theory.
    c. spreading activation theory.
    d. spreading network theory.
    C: spreading activation theory
  14. If a study fails to convincingly test the experimenter's hypothesis, it is said to lack:
    a. external validity.
    b. internal validity.
    c. external reliability.
    d. internal reliability.  
    B: internal validity
  15. What is the first step in the construction of an experiment?
    a. Selecting subjects.
    b. Operationalising variables.
    c. Developing a standardised procedure.
    d.  Framing a hypothesis
    D: Framing a hypothesis
  16. In a single-blind experiment:
    a. the subject is unaware of which experimental condition he/she is experiencing.
    b. the experimenter is unaware of which group the participant is in.
    c. neither the participant nor the experimenter knows which condition is being applied.
    d. no one knows which condition is being run.
    a: the subject is unaware of which experimental condition he/she is experiencing.
  17. In a double-blind experiment:
    a. the subject is unaware of which experimental condition he/she is experiencing.
    b. the experimenter is unaware of which group the participant is in.
    c. neither the participant nor the experimenter knows which condition is being applied.
    d. no one knows which condition is being run.
    c. neither the participant nor the experimenter knows which condition is being applied.
  18. Having an unreasonable and negative stereotype about members of another group of people is defined by your text as:
    a. prejudice.
    b. chauvinism.
    c. intolerance.
    d. impartiality.
    a. prejudice.
  19. When distributing surveys it is important to consider:
    a. the demographic characteristics of the population.
    b. all of the biases in the population.
    c. random biases.
    d. the psychographic characteristics of the population.   
    c: random biases
  20. A stratified random sample reflects:
    a. experimenter bias.
    b. the proportion drawn from each population category.
    c. the programmatic choice of participants.
    d. random selection of participants from each population category
    d: random selection of participants from each population category
  21. A negative correlation between two variables means:
    a. there is no relationship between the variables.
    b. the lower a subject scores on one variable, the lower s/he will score on the other.
    c. the higher a subject scores on one variable, the lower s/he will score on the other.
    d. the higher a subject scores on one variable, the higher s/he will score on the other.
    c. the higher a subject scores on one variable, the lower s/he will score on the other.
  22. A positive correlation between two variables means:
    a. there is no relationship between the variables.
    b. the lower a subject scores on one variable, the lower s/he will score on the other.
    c. the higher a subject scores on one variable, the lower s/he will score on the other
    d. the higher a subject scores on one variable, the higher s/he will score on the other. 
    d. the higher a subject scores on one variable, the higher s/he will score on the other.
  23. The axon is:
    a. a tight coat of cells composed of fats.
    b. contains the genetic material of the cell.
    c. made up of 'white matter'.
    d. a long extension from the cell body
    d. a long extension from the cell body
  24. The myelin sheath is:
    a. a tight coat of cells composed of fats.
    b. contains the genetic material of the cell.
    c. made up of 'white matter'.
    d.  a long extension from the cell body.
  25. The cell body is: 
    a. a tight coat of cells composed of fats.
    b. contains the genetic material of the cell.
    c. made up of 'white matter'.
    d.  a long extension from the cell body.
    b. contains the genetic material of the cell.
  26. Eckermann and colleagues described four phases or stages of culture shock. Which one of the following depicts the stages as they occur?
    a. Beginning resolution; disenchantment; honeymoon; effective functioning.  
    b. Disenchantment; beginning resolution; honeymoon; effective functioning.
    c. Effective functioning; disenchantment; honeymoon; beginning resolution.
    d.  Honeymoon; disenchantment; beginning resolution; effective functioning.
    d.  Honeymoon; disenchantment; beginning resolution; effective functioning.
  27. The purpose of the dendrite is to:
    a. pass information to other neurons.
    b. receive information from adjacent cells.
    c. receive enough stimulation to fire.
    d. create collateral branches for communication.
    b. receive information from adjacent cells.
  28. Connections between neurons occur at:  
    a. neuromuscular junctions.
    b. the axon hillock.
    c. synapses.  
    d. astral cells. 
    c. synapses.
  29. The membrane of a neuron at rest is:
    a. polarised. The inside of the cell membrane has a positive electrical charge while the fluid outside the cell membrane has a negative charge.
    b. depolarised. The inside of the cell membrane has a negative resting potential, while the fluid outside the cell membrane has a positive resting potential.
    c. polarised. The inside of the cell membrane has a negative electrical charge while the fluid outside the cell membrane has a positive electrical charge.
    d. hyperpolarised. The fluid inside the cell membrane has a positive electrical charge while the fluid outside the cell membrane has a negative charge
    c. polarised. The inside of the cell membrane has a negative electrical charge while the fluid outside the cell membrane has a positive electrical charge.
  30. You know someone who is seriously depressed. It is likely that s/he is:
    a. low on endorphins.
    b. suffering from an overabundance of GABA.
    c. experiencing an increase in acetylcholine.
    d. experiencing a decrease in serotonin.  
    d. experiencing a decrease in serotonin
  31. The endocrine system consists of glands that:
    a. secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters.
    b. produce hormones directly into the bloodstream.
    c. absorb neurotransmitters from the synapse.
    d. facilitate the use of GABA.   
    b. produce hormones directly into the bloodstream.
  32. The pituitary gland is often described as the 'master gland' because:
    a. it inhibits the production of most neurotransmitter substances.
    b. secretions from the pituitary produce hyperthyroidism.
    c. several glands increase pituitary output.
    d. many of its hormones stimulate and regulate other glands
    d. many of its hormones stimulate and regulate other glands
  33. The medulla oblongata is:
    a. an extension of the spinal cord.
    b. part of the cerebellum.
    c. part of the cerebrum.
    d. an extension of the reticular activating system.
    a. an extension of the spinal cord
  34. Prospective memory is memory for:
    A. making a decision about which brand of toaster to purchase.
    B. the beginning of a new route home.
    C. learning a new song.
    D.  remembering to pick up the kids later on this afternoon
    D.  remembering to pick up the kids later on this afternoon

    remembering to do things in the future
    (retrospective memory = remembering things in the past)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. The Ponzo illusion (i.e., two lines of equal length, one above the other, that do not appear to be of equal length) depends on:
    a. age.
    b. experience with linear perspective.
    c. industrialisation of society
    d. the Gestalt principle of 'goodness of fit'.
    b. experience with linear perspective.
  36. Consciousness in the sense of subjective awareness may be found:
    a. in the reticular activating system, cortex and spinal cord.
    b. distributed among several neural pathways: the reticular activating system, cortex, and the thalamus.
    c.  diffusely distributed in the cortex, medulla, and cingulum.
    d.  none of the options listed.  
    d.  none of the options listed.   

    "impossible to conceive of an exhaustive physical representation of concepts of consciousness in the brain or anywhere else"
  37. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that affects:
    a. thoughts.
    b. emotions.
    c. motivation.
    d.  all of the options listed
    d.  all of the options listed
  38. A consulting physician in the intensive care unit of a hospital is informed that the patient being seen has suffered trauma to her reticular formation. The doctor can infer that the patient is:
    a. experiencing some difficulty with vision.
    b. experiencing some difficulty with short-term memory.
    c.  unconscious.
    d.  paralysed.   
    c.  unconscious.

    reticular formation's major functions are to maintain consciousness, regulate arousal levels and modulate the activity of neurons in the CNS
  39. Compared to people who sleep 7-8 hours per night, people who sleep longer:
    a. are healthier.
    b. accomplish very little.
    c.  have a higher mortality rate.
    d.  are more prone to insomnia. 
    c.  have a higher mortality rate.
  40. Jimmie has been diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome, which is:
    a. a speech impediment due to damage to Broca's area.
    b. amnesia due to a vitamin B deficiency.
    c. a visual impairment due to excessive levels of dopamine.
    d. the relative preservation of linguistic abilities with very striking visuo- spatial deficits.
    b. amnesia due to a vitamin B deficiency.
  41. A measure is internally consistent if:
    a. two different interviewers rate a subject similarly regarding a particular dimension.
    b. several ways of asking the same question yield similar results.
    c. it has a tendency to yield relatively similar scores for the same individual over time.
    d. it consistently relates to some objective criteria. 
    c. it has a tendency to yield relatively similar scores for the same individual over time.
  42. In addition to the influence of light and dark, human circadian rhythms are controlled by:
    a. lateral geniculate.
    b.  hypothalamus.
    c.  adrenal gland.
    d.  prefrontal cortex.
    b.  hypothalamus.
  43. REM sleep occurs following:
    a. stage 1 sleep.
    b. stage 2 sleep.
    c. stage 3 sleep.
    d. stage 4 sleep.
    b. stage 2 sleep.
  44. Which of the following is not a kind of neuron?
    a. Sensory neuron.
    b. Astral neuron.
    c. Interneuron.
    d. Motor neuron.   
    b. Astral neuron.
  45. Memory expressed in behaviour that does not require conscious recollection is:
    a. implicit memory.
    b. explicit memory.
    c. episodic memory.
    d. semantic memory. 
    a. implicit memory.
  46. In Broca's aphasia there is a deficit in:
    a.  language production.
    b.  hearing.
    c.  language comprehension.
    d.  vision.   
    a.  language production.
  47. You would do best on an exam if you could:
    a. study at home in your room.
    b. take the exam in the same room you study in.
    c. encode the material visually
    d. retrieve the material at home.
    b. take the exam in the same room you study in
  48. Cognitive psychologists distinguish between two kinds of interference when explaining memory failure:
    a.  proactive and retroactive.
    b.  anterograde and retrograde.
    c.  proactive and retrograde.
    d. anterograde and retroactive
    a.  proactive and retroactive.
  49. William James argued that ______memory is immediate memory for information momentarily held in consciousness, whereas ______ memory is the vast store of information.  

    a. secondary; primary
    b. short term; working  
    c. primary; secondary
    d. ancillary; long-term   
    c. primary; secondary
  50. Increasing the number of ways you encode information:
    a. is confusing and leads to poor retention.
    b. requires too much effort for too little gain.
    c. helps one encode information more rapidly.
    d.  significantly improves retrieval. 
    d.  significantly improves retrieval.
  51. In the standard model of memory, the term iconic storage refers to the momentary memory for ______.  
    a.  visual information  
    b.  auditory information  
    c.  spatial information  
    d.  olfactory information   
    a.  visual information 


    econic = auditory
  52. An individual who weighs the pros and cons of different alternatives in order to make a choice is displaying:  
    a. confirmation bias.  
    b. decision making.  
    c. computative heuristic.  
    d. calculative algorithm.  
    b. decision making.
  53. Connectionist models differ from traditional information-processing models in that the underlying metaphor is no longer really 'mind as computer'. Rather, it is mind as:  
    a. a set of algorithms functioning in series.
    b. a set of heuristics involved in problem solving.  
    c.  a set of neurons that activate and inhibit one another.  
    d.  the programmer of the computer
    c.  a set of neurons that activate and inhibit one another.
  54. Goldberger and Veroff used three categories to describe approaches to cultural research. Which one of the following is NOT one of categories mentioned in the text?  
    a. The study of the interaction between cultures that co-exist in a larger societal context.
    b. The comparison of human behaviour across different cultures.
    c. The process of absorbing and internalising the rules of the culture.  
    d. The study of individual cultures to determine relationships between the practices of the culture and the behaviour of people living within that culture.   
    c. The process of absorbing and internalising the rules of the culture.
  55. The feeling of disorientation and anxiety that occurs as people from one culture encounter and adapt to the practices, rules, and expectations of another culture, is called:
    a. adaptive functioning.
    b. cultural adjustment.
    c.  culture shock.  
    d.  pluralism. 
    c.  culture shock
  56. Gonads:  
    a. influence sexual development and desire.  
    b. facilitate fight or flight reactions.  
    c. are responsible for desire for competition.  
    d. limit height.   
    a. influence sexual development and desire
  57. LaFromboise, Coleman, and Gerton identified a number of different types of acculturation. Which one of the following is NOT one of the types that they identified?  
    a.  Accommodation.  
    b.  Fusion.
    c.  Alternation.  
    d.  Multiculturalism.  
    a.  Accommodation.
  58. Our ______ identity helps define our place in the world, and satisfies our need to belong to a wider group.  
    a. personal  
    b.  social  
    c.  shared  
    d.  group   
    b.  social
  59. ______ refers to biological attributes that differentiate men from women, whereas ______ refers to roles and behaviours that cultures deem appropriate for men and women.  
    a. Gender; sex  
    b.  Sex; gender  
    c.  Sex; sexual characteristics 
    d.  Gender; sexual characteristics 
    b.  Sex; gender
  60. According to the text, a fear or hatred based on a broad stereotype about cultures different to your own, is called:
    a. chauvinism.  
    b. racial intolerance.  
    c.  xenophobia.  
    d.  bigotry
    c.  xenophobia
  61. Which of the following is not a limitation of the case-study method?  
    a. Investigator bias.  
    b. Small sample size.  
    c. Generalisability to the population.  
    d.  Interpreting the meaning of behaviours.
    d.  Interpreting the meaning of behaviours.
  62. A study examined Australian university students' attitudes towards Asians. The most frequently elicited comments described Asians as "hardworking, ambitious, and industrious". The text used this to describe:  
    a. cultural typecasting.  
    b. ethnic labelling.  
    c. racial pigeonholes.  
    d.  cultural stereotypes. 
    d.  cultural stereotypes.
  63. According to parallel-distributed processing models:  
    a. most cognitive processes occur simultaneously.  
    b. most cognitive processes use serial processing.  
    c. the meaning of the representation is contained in a specific locus in the brain.  
    d. each node stands alone.   
    a. most cognitive processes occur simultaneously
  64. Nonverbal behaviours include ______ which is the use of touch to accompany communication and ______, which is the use of time.  
    a. kinesics: oculesics  
    b. chronemics; proxemics  
    c.  haptics; chronemics  
    d.  oculesics; haptics   
    c.  haptics; chronemics  

    • Kinaesics: the use of gestures, movements and facial expressions
    • Oculesics: use of eye movements and eye contact
    • proxemics: use of space between people while communicating
    • vocalics: use of vocal cues such as pitch, volume and tempo
  65. An aspect of intimate space that refers to how close people stand when talking is called _____________.
    Proxemics
  66. The stage at which the brain is said to be maximally sensitive to language acquisition is known as the _____________.
    • From ages 3 - 5
    • ??????????? CANNOT FIND NAME ANYWHERE
  67. Geoffrey, a patriotic New Zealander, argues that, since all Peter Jackson films are masterpieces and King Kong has been directed by Peter Jackson, King Kong must be a masterpiece. Geoffrey is using __________ to come to this conclusion.
    Prejudice
  68. When we remember, we create a ______________ of the thing we wish to remember.
    memory
  69. Whereas _____ is associated with the law of effect, _____ is considered the founder of operant conditioning
    • Edward Thorndike
    • B. F. Skinner
  70. In blindsight, the neural pathway from the ______ is inoperative. However, an older pathway through the ______ remains intact.
    • primary visual cortex
    • secondary visual pathway
  71. Taste travels two pathways, one to the ___________, and the other to the ___________.
    • thalamus and primary gustory cortex
    • limbic system (produces immediate emotional and behavioural responses)
  72. Segments of the spinal cord relay information to and from different parts of the body. _____ _____ relay information to the back of the spine, and _____ _____ transmit information from the front of the spinal cord to the periphery.
    • Spinal Nerves
    • neurons
  73. In a _____________ study, participants are not informed about crucial information, such as the condition to which they are being exposed.
    single-blind
  74. The ____________ refers to the question of how mental and physical events interact.
    mind body

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