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The nervous system consists of 2 systems:
- the Central Nervous System (CNS)
- the Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)
Sensory neurons carry sensory information to:
Motor neurons transmit commands from:
the brain to the glands and muscles of the body
neurons with one another
neurons generally consist of:
- cell body
when a neuron is at its resting potential it is:
polarised - with negative charge inside the cell membrane and positive charge on the outside
graded potentials are the:
spreading voltage changes along the cell membrane
an action potential is:
the firing of the neuron or nerve impulse.
transmit information from one neuron to another as they are released from the synapse.
the endocrine system:
- is a collection of glands that control various bodily functions
- sends global messages through the blood stream
neurons from the PNS carry messages to and from the __________.
Two subdivisions of the PNS include:
- somatic nervous system - carries information to the brain and motor neurons that direct actions of muscles
- autonomic nervous system - controls basic life processes such as heart beat, digestive system and breathing
autonomic nervous system is broken into 2 parts:
- sympathetic nervous system (activated in response to threats) and
- parasympathetic nervous system (routine activities)
Which parts of the brain are used for more sophisticated sensory, cognitive and motor processes?
cerebrum and cortex
CNS consists of
the brain and the spinal cord
Role of the spinal cord in CNS:
to carry out reflexes, transmit sensory information to the brain and transit messages from the brain to the muscles and organs
Structures that link the brain to the spinal cord include:
The hindbrain which consists of the medulla oblongata, the cerebellum and parts of the reticular formation.
These structures sustain life by controlling our supply of oxygen and blood to cells in the body and regulate our arousal levels.
The structures that help humans orient to visual and auditory stimuli with the eye and body movements include:
the midbrain which consists of the tectum and the tegmentum
Complex sensory information including emotional, cognitive, and behavioural processes involve the:
forebrain which consist of the hypothalamus, thalamus, & the subcortical structures of the cerebrum and cerebral cortex.
The cerebral cortex consists of two hemispheres, each has:
- four sets of lobes
- occipital lobe
- parietal lobe
- frontal lobe
- temporal lobe
Heritability refers to:
the proportion of variability among individuals on an observed characteristic that can be accounted for by genetic variability.
Neurons connect at:
stages of communication between one neuron to another:
- 1. Resting state
- 2. depolatisation
- 3. graded potential
- 4. action potential
- 5. neurotransmitter release
- 6. chemical message received.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that can effect:
- emotional arousal
- experience of pleasure
Lack of dopamine- releasing neurons can cause
- parkinson's disease
- reduced facial displays of emotion
- general slowing thought processes
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter which regulates:
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter which is involved in:
learning and memory
Endorphins are chemicals that:
elevate mood and reduce pain
Lobes of the cerebral cortex include:
- occipital lobes - located in the rear portion of the cortex, specialised for vision
- Parietal lobes - located in the from of occipital lobes, involved in functions like touch, detecting movement in the environment, locating objects within space and own body as it moves
- frontal lobes - functions include movement, attention, planning, social skills, abstract thinking, memory and some aspects of personality