nutrition ch 4 PART 1

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karrinschultz
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275772
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nutrition ch 4 PART 1
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2014-06-01 01:59:55
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nutrition PART
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ch 4
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  1. Which nutrient used for fuel is typically reserved for other processes
    protein
  2. Glycogen
    a carbohydrate made of multiple units of glucose with a highly branched structure.
  3. glycogen is the storage form of glucose in____ and is synthesized ( and stored)  in the ___ and ___
    humans. Liver and muscles
  4. carbohydrates are the main source of fuel for cells in the ___, ___ and ___/
    brain. nervous system. red blood cells.
  5. carbohydrates provide on average __ kcal per  gram.
    4
  6. carbohydrates are readily available fuel for cells in which two forms?
    glucose and glycogen
  7. glycogen stored in the liver is used to...
    mainain blood glucose oncentrations in times when you havn't eaten for several hours or the diet doesn't supply enough carbs
  8. liver glycogen stoes are depleted in how many hours?
    18
  9. If you don't have any carbohydrates in your liver the body takes carbs from...
    This leads to...
    • breaking down proteins in the body
    • loss of muscle tissue
  10. for adequate energy your diet should be what percent of carbohydrates?
    45% to 65%
  11. carbohydrates are made up of what?
    carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms
  12. simple carbohydrates are calle
    sugars
  13. complex carbohydrates are called
    starches or fibers
  14. fibers are soulible/unsoulible
    unsoulible
  15. starches are soulible/unsoulible
    soulible
  16. monosaccharides and disaccarides are referrred to as
    simpel sugars
  17. Summarize photosynthesis
    plants use carbon, dioxide, water, and energy to produce glucose. glucose is stored in the leaf. can undergo further metabolism to form starch or fiber. with more nitrogen from air or soil, glucose can be transformed into protein.
  18. the three monosaccharides are..
    glucose, fructose, and galactose
  19. the major monosaccharide in the boyd is ...
    glucose
  20. glucose is known as..
    dextrose
  21. glucose in the blood stream may be called..
    blood sugar.
  22. sucrose is made up from..
    glucose and fructose
  23. fructose is also called..
    fruit sugar
  24. fructose is abosorbeed by the
    small intestine
  25. once absorbed by the small intestine fructose is transported to the.. where it is quickly/slowly metabolized
    liver quickly
  26. if there is too much fructose in your diet the remain fructose can be converted to..
    other compounds such as fat
  27. galactose has nearly the same structure as..
    glucose
  28. galactose is typically bonded to... making...
    0glucose , lactose
  29. lactose is found in..
    milk and milk products
  30. after lactose is digested and absorbed, ____ and ___ arrive in the liver
  31. glucose and galactose
  32. Galactose is transformed into glucose in the liver or further metabolized into..
    glycogen
  33. sucrose is found naturaly in..
    sugarcan, sugar beets, honey, and maple sugar
  34. Animals do not produce...
    sucrose
  35. animals mainly produce this type of carbohydrate
    glycogen
  36. fermentation
    the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols, acids, and carbon dioxide without the use of oxygen.
  37. polysaccharides
    carbohydrates containing many glucose units, from 10 to 1000 or more
  38. amylose
    a digestile straight-chain type of starch composed of glucose units.
  39. amylopection
    a digestible branched chain type of starch composed of glucose units
  40. Maltoseis the  result of two...
    glucose molecules bonded together.
  41. maltose is used mainly in..
    alcoholic beverages
  42. poly means
    many
  43. polysaccharides are also called
    complex carbohydrates or starch
  44. polysaccharides are found in
    grains, vegetables, and fruits
  45. "other carbohydrates" mainly refers to ..
    starch content
  46. plants store two types of human digestible carbohydrates..
    amylose and amylopection
  47. amylose is found in
    vegetables, beans, breads, pasta and rice
  48. cellulose can/can not be digested by humans
    can not
  49.  enzymes break down starches with glucose only at ...
    the end of a glucose chain.
  50. which is digested faster? amylose or amylopectin. Why?
    amylopectin because the branches provide more sites for the enzymes to to latch on to
  51. glycogen is store in the..
    liver and muscles
  52. glucose available in body fluids provide only how many kcal
    120 kcal
  53. cellulose
    an undigestible nonfermentable straight-chain polysaccharide amde of glucose molecules
  54. fiber is made up of mostly
    polysaccharides,
  55. fiber is not a single substance but
    a group of substances with similar characteristics
  56. fibers groups are..
    cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums and mucilages and lignin(lingin not a carbohydrate)
  57. the majority of these fibers are/are not dissolvable in water.
    are not
  58. nonfermentable fiber
    a fiber that is not easily metabolized by intestinal bacteria
  59. whole grains
  60. grains containg the entire seed of the plant, including the bran, germ, and endosperm (starchy interior). such as whole wheat and brown rice.
  61. dietary fiber
    fiber found in food.
  62. nonfermentable or insoluble types
    non carbohydrate form / carbohydrate form
  63. noncarbohydrate's form of fiber is... that....
    an example is...
    • lignin
    • increases fecal bulk
    • whole grains, wheat bran
  64. carbohydrate's form of fiber components are.... that... and...
    examples are
    • cellulose, hemicelluloses
    • increases fecal bulk, decreases intestinal transit time
    • all plants, wheat products , wheat, rye, rice, vegetables
  65. viscous or Soluble form
    carbohydrate
  66. soluble carbs components are... that...
    examples are..
    • pectins, gums, mucilages, some hemicelluloses
    • delays stomach emptying; slows glucose absorption; can lower blood cholesterol
    • citrus fruits, apples, banans, oat products, carrots, barley, beans, thickeneres added to foods
  67. viscous fiber
    a fiber that is readily fermented by bacteria in the large intestine.
  68. functional fiber
    fiber added to foods that has been shown to provide health benefits
  69. Total fiber is also called
    fiber
  70. total fiber is the combination of
    dietary fiber and functional fiber
  71. nutrition facts label only includes ___ fiber
    dietary
  72. prebiotics include goup of short-chain carbohydrates or oligosaccharides that are ___, but fermented by bacteria in the colon
    resistant to digestion
  73. prebiotics are thought to stimulate...
    growth or activity of beneficial bacteria in the large intestine
  74. name foods that contain at least 75% calories as carbohydrates
    Corn flakes, rice, bread, noodles
  75. name foods with moderate amounts of carbohydrates calories
    peas, broccoli, oatmeal, dry beans, legumes, cream pies, french fries , fat-free millk
  76. foods  with almost NO carbohydrates includes
    beef, eggs, chicken, fish, vegi oil, butter
  77. T/F good sources of starch will also likely be found the the same foods that are good sources of fiber
    true
  78. name foods high in carbs and micronutrients
    beans, potatoes, and the grains(wheat, rye,corn, oats, barley, and rice)

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