2. Larva penetrates the stomach and enters the hepatic portal circulation (Inside liver)
3. Larva migrates through the liver parenchyma(tissue of organ)
4. Larva enters the posterior vena cava and goes to lungs(through the heart, rt. atrium, rt. ventricle, pulm artery)
5. larva migrates up trachea to the pharynx where they are swallowed
6. following a molt in the stomach to stage 3, the parasite goes to the sm intestines to molt TWICE
__ what are white areas in the liver called? This is caused by the trachmigration route killing the liver cells
__ is the largest ascarid in dogs living in the small intestines and are long white and often straight in contrast to the worms of Physaloptera rara which lives in the stomach and is continuous C shaped through out its life
What is the prepatent period for ascarids?
21 days- 3 weeks
What is the life cycle for Ascarids?
1. Eggs/ L2 (infective stage) is
2. Larve penetrates the stomach and enters the hepatic portal circulation in the liver.
3. It then goes to the lungs via the vena cava, right auricle, right atrium, right ventricle and pulmonary artery;
4.larvae enter the alveoli, are coughed up into the trachea and mouth, are swallowed, molt once in the stomach and
5.then go to the small intestines mature and reproduce.
Larvae of both Ascarids and Ancylostoma that do not follow the normal routes of migration and as a result they encyst in the muscles in a __ state
__ is a term for a state of arrested development.
There are really three forms of both the ascarid and ancylostoma in animals body, not in the egg form. what are they?
1. adult- in intestines mostly
2. visceral migrating larvae
3. the encysted larval form
What are some signs of ascarid infections in prenatal infected pups?
a. abdominal cramps
b. intersussusception with constipation(difficult)/obstipation(blockage)/dischezia(painful evacuation)
What are some signs of ascarid infections in adults infected?
a. gastrointestinal upset (diarrhea and vomiting)
b. respiratory disorders due to tracheal migration(coughing)
c. "pot belled" appearance and emaciation
d. dull hair coat
What is in "Happy Jack"
piperazine, kills all round
When foreign larvae enter the __ host strange migratory routes are assumed by the larvae.
__ seen in Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (this implies migration in the liver primarily)
Visceral Larval migrans
What are 2 zoontic problems with parasites?
1. Visceral Larval Migrans
2. Cutaneous Larval Migrans
If visceral lraval migrans is ocular it is called__
Ocular Larva Migrans (OLM)
__ million people in the US have been infected with the larvae of T. canis and T. cati
__ children alone are affected annually by ascarids, with __ severe ocular larva migrans resulting in blindness
10 thousand children and 750-blindness
__ % of welfare children in Mississippi were positive for ascarids due to oral ingestion (report by State Health Office)
__ cause in humans by Ancylostoma brazilienses and A. caninum but most authorities and text will list only A. brazilienses causing cutaneous larval migrans in zoonotic cases
Cutaneous Larval Migrans
What is the nickname for Cutaneous Larval Migrans?
What are some similarities between Toxocara mystax(T.cati) and Toxocara canis?
1. Toxocara mystax is the common ascarid to cats like T.canis is to the dog
2. Transtracheal migration is exactly the same as in T. canis
3. Although not written, it is belived that larval leak does occur with cats and T. cati
What are some differences between Toxocara mystax (T. cati) and Toxocara canis?
1. Transplacental route of infection does not occur with T. cati. Transmammary is the route in cats.
__ does occurs in both the dog and cat. And does NO visceral migration.
__ follows a mucosal migration with the 2nd and 3rd molts occuring in the mucosa wall and the 4th stage entering the lumen of the gut to mature.
What is the prepatent period of Toxascaris leonina?
What are the 2 ways that Toxascaris leonina is transmissed?
1. ingestion of the eggs(or larva too) -- most common method 2. Ingestion of the paratenic host
What are some signs of Toxascaris leonina?
minimal due to the lack of pathogenicity with no transplacental and no transmammary transmission; therefore the animal is not effected until near adulthood
What is the life cycle of Toxascaris leonina?
1. ingestion of eggs-
4.mature to adult all within the intestinal tract
Raccoons typically defecate in the same spot over and over again, what is the place called?
__ has been responsible for severe neurologic disease and the death of several childern in the United States
What are 3 floation solutions used?
1. Sodium nitrate
2. Zinc sulfate
What is the 3rd most common Nematode?
What are the common whipworms?
1. Trichuris vulpis- dog
2. Trichurs campanula- cat
3. trichurs serrate- cat
4. Trichuris trichura- man, pig and monkey
unlike ascarids and ancylostoma that inhabit the small intestins, __ inhabit the cecum where they firmly attach to the anterior end and embed in the mucosa.
__ are the most common pathological worms encountered in veterinary medicine and human medicine.
Almost all puppies born in the US are infected with Toxocara canis and high percentage with Ancylostoma caninum; these puppies can begin to shed eggs as young as __
2 to 3 weeks of age
Hookworms are a well-known cause of cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) and recently, A. caninum has been recognized to be a cause of __
chronic enterocolitis (Humans only)
Several patients with __ were found to be infected with a single A. caninum adult, and serologic testing indicates that infection with this organism may be very common.
Nematodes have arelatively large body cavity (__) containing fluid under a pressure.
The basic excretory system of nematodes consists of paired __ with a common midventral excretory pore and ducts that run nearly the full lenght of the body.
Male nematodes caudal engs are often equipped qith a cuticular expansion called a ___
What are the stages of development of nematodes?
1 cell, morula, vermiform embryo,
What is the difference between vermiform embryo and 1st stage larvae?
The former contains only one cell clusters as organs, whereas the latter displays clearly recognizable organs( esophagus, intestine, excretory organs)
What are the 7 test that tell us what parasite we are dealing with? (in order from best to worst)
2. polymerase chain reaction
5. Centrifuge float 99%
6. Simple float 84%
7. Direct smean 17%
Adult ancylostomiasis live where?
Growth and maturation during ancylostomiasis after the ingestion for infective ova require between __ to __ days
18 to 21
Females during ancylostomasis lay large quantities of eggs that are passed in the feces and, under proper condition, hatch __ to __ hours
48 to 72 hours
The clinical picture in hookworm disease is dependent on what 3 things?
1. virulence of the speices of hookworm involved 2. degree of exposure to infective 3. degree of resistance of host
What are the major signs of ancylostomasis?
1. associated with blood loss 2. and gastrointestinal irritation (weakness, unfitness, anemia, diarrhea, bloody or tarry stools, anorexia, depression, and death)
Larvae of ancylostoma may wander through other internal organs, such as the liver and lungs producing secondary signs of __ and __
hepatitis and penumonia
__ is the primary cause of canine hookworm disease in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world
Transmammary transmission varies among species, but this route appears to be the PRIMARY method of __ infection in puppies
Transmammary infection by __ larvae can cause profound anemia and death of puppies within 12 days after birth.
What is the primary method of transmission for Toxocara canis?
What presents perhaps the most pathogenic zoonotic infection besides Baylisascaris procyonis?
Eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis are shed from raccoons undergo a __ week development period in the environment to become larvated.
__ larvae continues to grow as they migrate; larval penetration into the central nervous system may cayse irreparable damage or even death.
What is the specific gravity of Ascarids(rounds) and Ancylostoma (hooks)?
What is the specific gravity for Tricursis (whips)?
What is the specific gravity of Taenia (tapes)?
What is the specific gravity of Physaloptera(stomach)?
pyrantel pamoate + Oxantel pamoate
What is another term for "in milk"
Toxocara can produce __ eggs in a single day and can spend up to a year in environment?
Which of the ascarids do not transtracheally migrate?
Toxocara canis infections in puppies less than one month of age are produced by migration of __ from the bitch to the pups in utero.
2nd stage larvae
How soon can fourth stage larvae be present in the puppy's infected with Toxocara canis be in the intestinal tract?
3 days after birth
What is the largest ascarid in dogs?
Eggs of Toxocara take _ weeks to embryonate and become infective
Treatment of Toxocara and Ancylostoma must be repeated two and three times at two week intervals due to ___ and the __
visceral migration and "Larval Leak Syndrome"
Normal size of rbc
Normocytic-- Micro or Macro
Normal color of rbc
Another term in which two are working together is ________ relationship. _______ is when one is helping the other. Good example when 2 drugs work together to either extend the length of their effect or increase the amount of kill that they have, as opposed to antagonistic drugs
a disease that can be transferred from animal to man and vise versa
Name 3 zoonotic diseases
reduction in RBC # and/or hemoglobin
reduction in RBC # and/or hemoglobin
The body is not replacing the RBCs at the rate they are being destroyed or dying from longevity. Blood cells only last 110 days, but the bone marrow can’t replace them fast enough to equal the amount that is being destroyed
parasite is sucking blood out of the dog faster than the dog can replace the blood. Treat – kill parasite and dog replaces the RBCs
variety of shapes of cells
not enough hemoglobin, white in color
Almost red in color
In an anemic animal what type of cells would you see? Why?
Reason that it is smaller is that it is produced so fast that it doesn’t have normal stage of development, its undernourished and it doesn’t have enough hemoglobin (iron & protein in the diet) to fill up the oxygen and carbon dioxide to carry carbons
the organic formula for the drug with carbon, hydroxide, oxygen, and covalent bonds attached
Score __ - Feces is very hard and dry. Maybe expelled as individual pellets. Usually indicates dehydration in animal
Score __ – firm, but not hard. Segmented appearance but pliable
Score __ – log like. Little to no segmentation.
Score __ – very moist but distinct log shape. Leaves oily residue when picked up.
Score __ – very moist and has distinct shape but is present in piles rather than as distinct logs
Score __ – has texture but no distinct shape. Occurs in piles or spots.
Score __ – watery, no texture at all. Flat and occurs in puddles
Of all the parasites that will pass and be seen in the stool of the dog and cat, which two will they commonly see with the unaided eye?Exception?
-Ascarids (Rounds) – looks like 17 cm spaghetti
-Cestodes (Tapes) – looks like 2 cm grains of rice
-Exception is aquatic tapeworms –they do not look like a grain of rice, they come out in a ribbon, but loos like fettuccine - flat spaghetti. You can see them segmented, they are normally dead and they are yellow in color.
6 Basic CAPC Recommendations
1. Bring dog and cats in for annual physical
2. Place dogs and cats on preventive flea and tick products as soon after birth as possible.examinations.
3. Treat dogs and cats year-round with broad-spectrum heartworm anthelmintics that have activity against parasites with zoonotic
4. Provide pets with cooked food and fresh, portable water.potential.
5. Retest the heartworm status of dogs annually; test cats before placing them on preventatives and thereafter as indicated by history and physical findings.
6. Conduct fecal examinations in adult pets once or twice a year.
life cycle of A caninum:
1. Dog consumes the 3rd stage larvae or the 3rd stage larvae penetrates the skin of animal
2. Larvae mature in small intestines and feed
3. Mature worms copulate and start to produce eggs. a. two weeks after consumption of 3rd stage b. four weeks after skin penetration of 3rd stage
4. Eggs are passed in feces and hatch in 2-8 days
Life cycle of Trichuris
1. Eggs are passed in the feces
2. egg develops into to cell and then
into more cells
3.Cells form L1 larvae (infective)
4.Egg is then ingested by the host and
5. L1 develops in the small and large
6. (molt to L5)
7.Adults migrate to the cecum and reproduce
life cycle of Spirocerca lupi
1. Beetle will be ingested by parentenic
2. Parentenic host is ingested by dog
3.larvae liberated in the stomach
4.penetrate the stomach wall and find
their way, via the arterial system to the aorta and then to the esophagus
5.eggs are deposited in the stool
6.eggs hatch after ingestion by coprophagic beetle.
For Trichuris sp, Prepatent period from egg ingestion until egg production by the adults is approx. how long?
6 Symptoms of Whips
1. Weight loss
2. Bright blood in the feces
4. Abdominal pain
6. Flank Sucking
Trichuris eggs are _____ and thus require a flotation medium with a spg of ____ in order to get the eggs to float to the top.
whip of dog
whip of cat
whip of cat
Trichuris trichura-- 3 sp.
Intestinal threadworm of dog
Intestinal threadworm of dog
Intestinal threadworm of cat
Intestinal threadworm of cat
3 forms of Strongyloides exist:
1. Sexual male- passed as vermiform embryo
2. Sexual female- passed as vermiform embryo
3. Asexual and pathogenic female- most pathogenic females will pass eggs only except S. stercoralis
The male and female Strongyloides reproduce sexually while the pathogenic female will reproduce _______. what does this mean?
Parthenogenetically- asexual with eggs developing without being fertilized by a spermatozoan. So larvae that do pass out of the host can be developing into infective females or non-infective males and females.
the majority of all parasites are of the ____ gender. however Strongyloides is one Genus in which all the parasitic worms are ____.
What are 2 names for caval syndrome
1. Dirofilaria Hemoglobinurea
2. Vena cava syndrome
2 parasites that cause dark, tarry stool
ID of larvae in the fresh feces on direct or flotation is ____.
"the fox lungworm" is the lungworm of the dog and fox. What is its name?
Crop worm poultry
Inflammation of mucosa in duck
lung worm of cat
not a nematode, has a natural host in the mink but in Texas we see it in dogs.
Most pathogenic Zoonotically
Intermediate host of Eucoleus
Aelurostrongylus Intermediate host
Paragonimus intermediate host
these do not require intermediate host
Stomach worm of cat
Stomach worm of dogs
How do physaloptera differ from ascarids?
in stomach only
in shape of C
Eggs are almost always in a vermiform stage
Eggs appear transparent
They feed on the mucosa and cause bleeding
"Eyeworm" of dogs and cats
2 intermediate host flies that transmit this larvae and eggs from eye to eye.
Musca domestic (house flies) and Musca lacrimalis (face flies)
First case of HW disease in canine population was in
Hennepin county, minnesota; 1937
First case of HW disease in Feline was in
HW Diseases means the animal 1. but also means 2.
1. has heartworms
2. the animal suffers from the debilitating symptoms
1. Dog #1 has adults(S5) and microfilaria (S1)
2. Mosquito takes blood and picks up S1.
3. S1 molts to S3 in mosquito, time temp. depend.
4. Mosquito inserts S3 & saliva in Dog#2.
5. S3 molts to (3-5 days) S4 in subcutaneous tissue.
6. S4 stays in subcutaneous tissue for 100 days.
7. S4 molts to S5 (pre-adult) and it moves to pa.
8. S5 pa stays in pa for 80 days and then molts to adult S5.
Everyone knows that mosquitos transmit heartworms, but what about another filarid called _____ that is transmitted by the ___
Acanthocheilonema reconditum; flea (Ctenocephalis felis) the cat flea