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  1. __ generally a smaller organism that lives on or inside and at the expense of a larger animal
  2. Host expense is dependent on: (3)
    • 1. number of parasites
    • 2. kind and degree of injurt that they inflict
    • 3. vigor or nourisment of the host
  3. __ a biological association in which one animal is transported by another animal; give an example
    phoresis;Example: flea on dog or cattle egret on the back of cow in field
  4. __ two organisms which live together, neither bearing a parasitic relation to the other, but one or both members, deriving benefit
  5. __ two organisms living together with a mutual advantageous association of two or more organisms; give an example.
    Mutualism;Example: cattle egret cow is getting the bugs on its back eaten by the cattle egret – egrets getting lunch
  6. __ infestation with parasites
  7. __ a condition in which parasites of different species parasitize a single host. Give an example.
    multiple parasitism;Example: fleas and hookworms – internal and external parasites
  8. __ excessive parasitization by the same species
  9. roundworms
  10. hookworm
  11. whipworms
  12. hookworm infection under the skin
    cutaneous larval migrans
  13. cutaneous larval migrans in humans
    creeping eruption
  14. ascarids in humans
    visceral larval migrans
  15. passage of parasite via milk
  16. passage or parasites via placenta
    in Utero
  17. what are some synonyms for inUtero: (2)
    intrauterine, transovarian
  18. stage in development of egg post cell
  19. stage after morula
    vermiform embryo
  20. reduction in RBC # and/or hemoglobin
  21. requires intermediate host (vector) generally an arthropod. Give an example
    indirect life cycle; heartworms
  22. no intermediate host needed. example-- transmission via urine, vomit etc.
    direct life cycle
  23. the brand or trade name
    proprietary name
  24. the generic name for a drug
    non-proprietary name
  25. the organic formula for the drug with carbon, hydroxide, oxygen, and covalent bonds attached
    chemical name
  26. What does ascarids (Rounds) look like in feces?
  27. What does cestodes (tapes) look like in feces?
    grains of rice
  28. what does CAPC stand for?
    Companion Animal Parasite Council
  29. What family does Ancylostoma belong to?
  30. What is the life cycle of the nematode?
    • Egg(cell)
    • Morula
    • Vermiform Embryo
    • (hatch)
    • L1
    • (molt)
    • L2
    • (molt)
    • L3
    • (molt)
    • L4
    • (molt)
    • L5
    • (adult)
    • egg
  31. What is the infective stage for ascarids?
    stage 2
  32. What are the 3 type of ancylostomiasis?
    • 1. Ancylostoma caninum
    • 2. ancylostoma brazilienses
    • 3. uncinaria stenocephalia
  33. How does ancylostoma infection occur? (5)
    • 1. skin penetration-infective stage
    • 2. oral infection- prepatent period 14 days
    • 3. transmammary- A. caninum only to date
    • 4. intrauterine- A. caninum only to date
    • 5. mammalian intermediate host
  34. What is the lifecycle of the hookworm? 8 steps
    • 1. eggs are passed in feces--
    • 2. hatch in 2-8 days
    • 3. molt to L2
    • 4. molt to L3 (infective stage)
    • 5. swallowed or penetrates skin and matures to adult stage
    • 6. molt to L4
    • 7. molt to L5
    • 8. attaches to intestines
  35. What does ancylostomiasis inhabit?
    small intestins only-causing dark tarry feces
  36. What are some clinical signs of ancylostomiasis?
    • 1. far more devastating in puppy
    • 2. dark tarry stool diarrhea
    • 3. pale mucus membranes with anemia
    • 4. microcytic/hypochromic
    • 5. playing today, motionless tomorrow, dead 3rd day.
    • 6. adults NOT seen in feces too small, only eggs
  37. _ is known as a blood sucker, it feeds on the mucosa of the small intestines (glucose) resulting in bleeding of the mucosal lining. NOT a blood sucker
    Ancylostoma caninum
  38. Once the 3rd stage larvae of Ancylostoma caninum is consumed and passes to the sm. intestines, one of two avenues may be taken:
    • 1. larvae may mature to adult
    • 2. larvae may penetrate the intestine wall and migrate through the tissues and encyst within the skeletal muscles or gut wall becoming dormant
  39. The dormant larvae of Ancylostoma may becoming activated by what?
    Hormones of pregnancy or other stimuli where they can migrate to the small intestine or go to infest fetuses inutero
  40. __ and __ can both penetrate the skin resulting in cutaneous larval migrans
    ancylostoma caninum and ancylostoma brazilliense
  41. What is the diagnosis of hooks?
    eggs in the feces as larvae are hard to see
  42. What is the prepatent period for hooks?
    2 weeks
  43. Nemex
    pyrantel pamoate
  44. Drontal
    pyrantel pamoate/praziquantel
  45. Panacur
  46. Task
  47. Interceptor/Sentinel
    milbemycin oxime & lufenuron
  48. Revolution
  49. Heartgard plus
    ivermectin/pyrantel pamoate
  50. Filarbits Plus
  51. What are some ways of controling of hooks?
    • 1. feces removal
    • 2.can be periodically treated with salt 160g/liter boiling water
    • 3. concret runs cleaned well
    • 4. female should be de-wormed prior to breeding
  52. Roundworms
  53. What are 3 kinds of roundworms?
    • 1. Toxocara canis
    • 2. toxocara cati/mystax
    • 3. toxascaris leonina
  54. What are the 5 stages of nematodes?
    • 1. Adult in intestines
    • 2. eggs in feces on ground
    • 3. feces contain L2 (infective stage) larva hatch in duodenum
    • 4. larva migrate through various tissues
    • 5. larvae migrate through the lungs and coughed up and swallowed
  55. As will all parasites, the females are usually larger in size, as with ascarids where the male is __cm and the female is __ cm
    male- 7-9cm female 10-17cm
  56. 5 ways Ascarids can be transmitted?
    • 1.comsumption of eggs,
    • 2.second stage larvae consumption, 3.transplacentally,
    • 4.transmammary,
    • 5.predation of paratenic host
  57. from ___ (place and date)-- the risk of direct transmission to Toxocara canis to man through contact only with dogs has now been confirmed by a scientific study.
    Monheim, May 5, 2003
  58. Does Ascarid eggs have to incubate in the soil?
    until now it was assumed the edd and 1st stage larve must spend 2-7 weeks in soil to develop. So the answer is NO
  59. Largest to smallest order of Ascarids
    • 1. Toxocara canis
    • 2. Toxascaris leonina
    • 3. Toxocara cati
  60. What is the ascarid of raccoons?
    Baylisascaris procynois
  61. Toxocara canis and cati follow what is called a__
    Tracheal Migration Route
  62. Describe Tracheal Migration Route/Transtracheal Migration:
    • 1. Dog consumes second stage larva
    • 2. Larva penetrates the stomach and enters the hepatic portal circulation (Inside liver)
    • 3. Larva migrates through the liver parenchyma(tissue of organ)
    • 4. Larva enters the posterior vena cava and goes to lungs(through the heart, rt. atrium, rt. ventricle, pulm artery)
    • 5. larva migrates up trachea to the pharynx where they are swallowed
    • 6. following a molt in the stomach to stage 3, the parasite goes to the sm intestines to molt TWICE
  63. __ what are white areas in the liver called? This is caused by the trachmigration route killing the liver cells
    "milk spots"
  64. __ is the largest ascarid in dogs living in the small intestines and are long white and often straight in contrast to the worms of Physaloptera rara which lives in the stomach and is continuous C shaped through out its life
    Toxocara canis
  65. What is the prepatent period for ascarids?
    21 days- 3 weeks
  66. What is the life cycle for Ascarids?
    • 1. Eggs/ L2 (infective stage) is
    • consumed,
    • 2. Larve penetrates the stomach and enters the hepatic portal circulation in the liver.
    • 3. It then goes to the lungs via the vena cava, right auricle, right atrium, right ventricle and pulmonary artery;
    • 4.larvae enter the alveoli, are coughed up into the trachea and mouth, are swallowed, molt once in the stomach and
    • 5.then go to the small intestines mature and reproduce.
  67. Larvae of both Ascarids and Ancylostoma that do not follow the normal routes of migration and as a result they encyst in the muscles in a __ state
  68. __ is a term for a state of arrested development.
  69. There are really three forms of both the ascarid and ancylostoma in animals body, not in the egg form. what are they?
    • 1. adult- in intestines mostly
    • 2. visceral migrating larvae
    • 3. the encysted larval form
  70. What are some signs of ascarid infections in prenatal infected pups?
    • a. abdominal cramps
    • b. intersussusception with constipation(difficult)/obstipation(blockage)/dischezia(painful evacuation)
  71. What are some signs of ascarid infections in adults infected?
    • a. gastrointestinal upset (diarrhea and vomiting)
    • b. respiratory disorders due to tracheal migration(coughing)
    • c. "pot belled" appearance and emaciation
    • d. dull hair coat
  72. What is in "Happy Jack"
    piperazine, kills all round
  73. When foreign larvae enter the __ host strange migratory routes are assumed by the larvae.
  74. __ seen in Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (this implies migration in the liver primarily)
    Visceral Larval migrans
  75. What are 2 zoontic problems with parasites?
    • 1. Visceral Larval Migrans
    • 2. Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  76. If visceral lraval migrans is ocular it is called__
    Ocular Larva Migrans (OLM)
  77. __ million people in the US have been infected with the larvae of T. canis and T. cati
    15 million
  78. __ children alone are affected annually by ascarids, with __ severe ocular larva migrans resulting in blindness
    10 thousand children and 750-blindness
  79. __ % of welfare children in Mississippi were positive for ascarids due to oral ingestion (report by State Health Office)
  80. __ cause in humans by Ancylostoma brazilienses and A. caninum but most authorities and text will list only A. brazilienses causing cutaneous larval migrans in zoonotic cases
    Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  81. What is the nickname for Cutaneous Larval Migrans?
    "Creeping Eruption"
  82. What are some similarities between Toxocara mystax(T.cati) and Toxocara canis?
    • 1. Toxocara mystax is the common ascarid to cats like T.canis is to the dog
    • 2. Transtracheal migration is exactly the same as in T. canis
    • 3. Although not written, it is belived that larval leak does occur with cats and T. cati
  83. What are some differences between Toxocara mystax (T. cati) and Toxocara canis?
    1. Transplacental route of infection does not occur with T. cati. Transmammary is the route in cats.
  84. __ does occurs in both the dog and cat. And does NO visceral migration.
    Toxascaris leonina
  85. __ follows a mucosal migration with the 2nd and 3rd molts occuring in the mucosa wall and the 4th stage entering the lumen of the gut to mature.
    Toxascaris leonina
  86. What is the prepatent period of Toxascaris leonina?
    10 weeks
  87. What are the 2 ways that Toxascaris leonina is transmissed?
    1. ingestion of the eggs(or larva too) -- most common method 2. Ingestion of the paratenic host
  88. What are some signs of Toxascaris leonina?
    minimal due to the lack of pathogenicity with no transplacental and no transmammary transmission; therefore the animal is not effected until near adulthood
  89. What is the life cycle of Toxascaris leonina?
    • 1. ingestion of eggs-
    • 2. hatch-
    • 3.molts- and
    • 4.mature to adult all within the intestinal tract
  90. Raccoons typically defecate in the same spot over and over again, what is the place called?
    "raccoon latrines"
  91. __ has been responsible for severe neurologic disease and the death of several childern in the United States
    Baylisascaris procyonis
  92. What are 3 floation solutions used?
    • 1. Sodium nitrate
    • 2. Zinc sulfate
    • 3. Sheather's
  93. What is the 3rd most common Nematode?
    Trichuriasis- whipworm
  94. What are the common whipworms?
    • 1. Trichuris vulpis- dog
    • 2. Trichurs campanula- cat
    • 3. trichurs serrate- cat
    • 4. Trichuris trichura- man, pig and monkey
  95. unlike ascarids and ancylostoma that inhabit the small intestins, __ inhabit the cecum where they firmly attach to the anterior end and embed in the mucosa.
  96. __ are the most common pathological worms encountered in veterinary medicine and human medicine.
  97. Almost all puppies born in the US are infected with Toxocara canis and high percentage with Ancylostoma caninum; these puppies can begin to shed eggs as young as __
    2 to 3 weeks of age
  98. Hookworms are a well-known cause of cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) and recently, A. caninum has been recognized to be a cause of __
    chronic enterocolitis (Humans only)
  99. Several patients with __ were found to be infected with a single A. caninum adult, and serologic testing indicates that infection with this organism may be very common.
    eosinophilic enteritis
  100. Nematodes have arelatively large body cavity (__) containing fluid under a pressure.
  101. The basic excretory system of nematodes consists of paired __ with a common midventral excretory pore and ducts that run nearly the full lenght of the body.
    unicellular glands
  102. Male nematodes caudal engs are often equipped qith a cuticular expansion called a ___
    copulatory bursa
  103. What are the stages of development of nematodes?
    1 cell, morula, vermiform embryo,
  104. What is the difference between vermiform embryo and 1st stage larvae?
    The former contains only one cell clusters as organs, whereas the latter displays clearly recognizable organs( esophagus, intestine, excretory organs)
  105. What are the 7 test that tell us what parasite we are dealing with? (in order from best to worst)
    • 1. necropsy
    • 2. polymerase chain reaction
    • 3. ELISA
    • 4. Immunofluoescence
    • 5. Centrifuge float 99%
    • 6. Simple float 84%
    • 7. Direct smean 17%
  106. Adult ancylostomiasis live where?
    small intestine
  107. Growth and maturation during ancylostomiasis after the ingestion for infective ova require between __ to __ days
    18 to 21
  108. Females during ancylostomasis lay large quantities of eggs that are passed in the feces and, under proper condition, hatch __ to __ hours
    48 to 72 hours
  109. The clinical picture in hookworm disease is dependent on what 3 things?
    1. virulence of the speices of hookworm involved 2. degree of exposure to infective 3. degree of resistance of host
  110. What are the major signs of ancylostomasis?
    1. associated with blood loss 2. and gastrointestinal irritation (weakness, unfitness, anemia, diarrhea, bloody or tarry stools, anorexia, depression, and death)
  111. Larvae of ancylostoma may wander through other internal organs, such as the liver and lungs producing secondary signs of __ and __
    hepatitis and penumonia
  112. __ is the primary cause of canine hookworm disease in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world
    A. caninum
  113. Transmammary transmission varies among species, but this route appears to be the PRIMARY method of __ infection in puppies
    Ancylostoma caninum
  114. Transmammary infection by __ larvae can cause profound anemia and death of puppies within 12 days after birth.
    Uncinaria stenocephala
  115. What is the primary method of transmission for Toxocara canis?
  116. What presents perhaps the most pathogenic zoonotic infection besides Baylisascaris procyonis?
  117. Eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis are shed from raccoons undergo a __ week development period in the environment to become larvated.
    2-4 weeks
  118. __ larvae continues to grow as they migrate; larval penetration into the central nervous system may cayse irreparable damage or even death.
    Baylsascaris procyonis
  119. What is the specific gravity of Ascarids(rounds) and Ancylostoma (hooks)?
  120. What is the specific gravity for Tricursis (whips)?
  121. What is the specific gravity of Taenia (tapes)?
  122. What is the specific gravity of Physaloptera(stomach)?
  123. Nemex Plus
    pyrantel pamoate + Oxantel pamoate
  124. Telmin
  125. Lopatol
  126. What is another term for "in milk"
  127. Toxocara can produce __ eggs in a single day and can spend up to a year in environment?
  128. Which of the ascarids do not transtracheally migrate?
    Toxascaris leonina
  129. Toxocara canis infections in puppies less than one month of age are produced by migration of __ from the bitch to the pups in utero.
    2nd stage larvae
  130. How soon can fourth stage larvae be present in the puppy's infected with Toxocara canis be in the intestinal tract?
    3 days after birth
  131. What is the largest ascarid in dogs?
    Toxocara canis
  132. Eggs of Toxocara take _ weeks to embryonate and become infective
    2 weeks
  133. Treatment of Toxocara and Ancylostoma must be repeated two and three times at two week intervals due to ___ and the __
    visceral migration and "Larval Leak Syndrome"
  134. Normal size of rbc
    Normocytic-- Micro or Macro
  135. Normal color of rbc
    Normochromic--(micro, macro)
  136. Another term in which two are working together is ________ relationship. _______ is when one is helping the other. Good example when 2 drugs work together to either extend the length of their effect or increase the amount of kill that they have, as opposed to antagonistic drugs
    Symbiotic; symbiosis
  137. a disease that can be transferred from animal to man and vise versa
  138. Name 3 zoonotic diseases
    • -Ascariasis
    • -Ancylostomiasis
    • -Trichuriasis
  139. reduction in RBC # and/or hemoglobin
  140. Anemia
    reduction in RBC # and/or hemoglobin
  141. The body is not replacing the RBCs at the rate they are being destroyed or dying from longevity. Blood cells only last 110 days, but the bone marrow can’t replace them fast enough to equal the amount that is being destroyed
    Aplastic anemia
  142. parasite is sucking blood out of the dog faster than the dog can replace the blood. Treat – kill parasite and dog replaces the RBCs
    Clinical anemia
  143. variety of shapes of cells
  144. not enough hemoglobin, white in color
    Hypochromic, microchromic
  145. Almost red in color
    Hyperchromic, macrochromic
  146. In an anemic animal what type of cells would you see? Why?
    • Microcytic, hypochromic.
    • Reason that it is smaller is that it is produced so fast that it doesn’t have normal stage of development, its undernourished and it doesn’t have enough hemoglobin (iron & protein in the diet) to fill up the oxygen and carbon dioxide to carry carbons
  147. the organic formula for the drug with carbon, hydroxide, oxygen, and covalent bonds attached
    Chemical name
  148. Score __ - Feces is very hard and dry. Maybe expelled as individual pellets. Usually indicates dehydration in animal
  149. Score __ – firm, but not hard. Segmented appearance but pliable
  150. Score __ – log like. Little to no segmentation.
  151. Score __ – very moist but distinct log shape. Leaves oily residue when picked up.
  152. Score __ – very moist and has distinct shape but is present in piles rather than as distinct logs
  153. Score __ – has texture but no distinct shape. Occurs in piles or spots.
  154. Score __ – watery, no texture at all. Flat and occurs in puddles
  155. Of all the parasites that will pass and be seen in the stool of the dog and cat, which two will they commonly see with the unaided eye?Exception?
    • -Ascarids (Rounds) – looks like 17 cm spaghetti
    • -Cestodes (Tapes) – looks like 2 cm grains of rice
    • -Exception is aquatic tapeworms –they do not look like a grain of rice, they come out in a ribbon, but loos like fettuccine - flat spaghetti. You can see them segmented, they are normally dead and they are yellow in color.
  156. 6 Basic CAPC Recommendations
    • 1. Bring dog and cats in for annual physical
    • 2. Place dogs and cats on preventive flea and tick products as soon after birth as possible.examinations.
    • 3. Treat dogs and cats year-round with broad-spectrum heartworm anthelmintics that have activity against parasites with zoonotic
    • 4. Provide pets with cooked food and fresh, portable water.potential.
    • 5. Retest the heartworm status of dogs annually; test cats before placing them on preventatives and thereafter as indicated by history and physical findings.
    • 6. Conduct fecal examinations in adult pets once or twice a year.
  157. life cycle of A caninum:
    • 1. Dog consumes the 3rd stage larvae or the 3rd stage larvae penetrates the skin of animal
    • 2. Larvae mature in small intestines and feed
    • 3. Mature worms copulate and start to produce eggs. a. two weeks after consumption of 3rd stage b. four weeks after skin penetration of 3rd stage
    • 4. Eggs are passed in feces and hatch in 2-8 days
  158. Life cycle of Trichuris
    • 1. Eggs are passed in the feces
    • 2. egg develops into to cell and then
    • into more cells
    • 3.Cells form L1 larvae (infective)
    • 4.Egg is then ingested by the host and
    • hatches
    • 5. L1 develops in the small and large
    • intestines
    • 6. (molt to L5)
    • 7.Adults migrate to the cecum and reproduce
  159. life cycle of Spirocerca lupi
    • 1. Beetle will be ingested by parentenic
    • host (lizard)
    • 2. Parentenic host is ingested by dog
    • 3.larvae liberated in the stomach
    • 4.penetrate the stomach wall and find
    • their way, via the arterial system to the aorta and then to the esophagus
    • 5.eggs are deposited in the stool
    • 6.eggs hatch after ingestion by coprophagic beetle.
  160. For Trichuris sp, Prepatent period from egg ingestion until egg production by the adults is approx. how long?
    3 months
  161. 6 Symptoms of Whips
    • 1. Weight loss
    • 2. Bright blood in the feces
    • 3. Anemia
    • 4. Abdominal pain
    • 5. Flatulence
    • 6. Flank Sucking
  162. Trichuris eggs are _____ and thus require a flotation medium with a spg of ____ in order to get the eggs to float to the top.
    heavier; 1.145
  163. Trichuris vulpis
    whip of dog
  164. Trichuris campanula
    whip of cat
  165. Trichuris serrate
    whip of cat
  166. Trichuris trichura-- 3 sp.
    • 1. man
    • 2. pig
    • 3. monkeys
  167. Intestinal threadworm of dog
    Strongyloides stercoralis
  168. Strongyloides stercoralis
    Intestinal threadworm of dog
  169. Intestinal threadworm of cat
    Strongyloides tumefaciens
  170. Strongyloides tumefaciens
    Intestinal threadworm of cat
  171. 3 forms of Strongyloides exist:
    • 1. Sexual male- passed as vermiform embryo
    • 2. Sexual female- passed as vermiform embryo
    • 3. Asexual and pathogenic female- most pathogenic females will pass eggs only except S. stercoralis
  172. The male and female Strongyloides reproduce sexually while the pathogenic female will reproduce _______. what does this mean?
    Parthenogenetically- asexual with eggs developing without being fertilized by a spermatozoan. So larvae that do pass out of the host can be developing into infective females or non-infective males and females.
  173. the majority of all parasites are of the ____ gender. however Strongyloides is one Genus in which all the parasitic worms are ____.
    female; female
  174. What are 2 names for caval syndrome
    • 1. Dirofilaria Hemoglobinurea
    • 2. Vena cava syndrome
  175. 2 parasites that cause dark, tarry stool
    • 1. Physaloptera
    • 2. Ancylostoma
  176. ID of larvae in the fresh feces on direct or flotation is ____.
  177. "the fox lungworm" is the lungworm of the dog and fox. What is its name?
    Eucoleus aerophila
  178. Crop worm poultry
    Eucoleus annulata
  179. Inflammation of mucosa in duck
    Eucoleus contorta
  180. lung worm of cat
    Aleurostrongylus abstrusus
  181. not a nematode, has a natural host in the mink but in Texas we see it in dogs.
    Paragonimus kellicotti
  182. Most pathogenic Zoonotically
  183. Intermediate host of Eucoleus
  184. Aelurostrongylus Intermediate host
  185. Paragonimus intermediate host
  186. these do not require intermediate host
  187. Stomach worm of cat
    Physaloptera praeputialis
  188. Stomach worm of dogs
    Physaloptera rara
  189. How do physaloptera differ from ascarids?
    • Physaloptera are:
    • in stomach only
    • in shape of C
    • Eggs are almost always in a vermiform stage
    • Eggs appear transparent
    • They feed on the mucosa and cause bleeding
  190. "Eyeworm" of dogs and cats
    Thelazia californiensis
  191. 2 intermediate host flies that transmit this larvae and eggs from eye to eye.
    Musca domestic (house flies) and Musca lacrimalis (face flies)
  192. First case of HW disease in canine population was in
    Hennepin county, minnesota; 1937
  193. First case of HW disease in Feline was in
  194. HW Diseases means the animal 1. but also means 2.
    • 1. has heartworms
    • 2. the animal suffers from the debilitating symptoms
  195. Heartworm Lifecycle
    • 1. Dog #1 has adults(S5) and microfilaria (S1)
    • 2. Mosquito takes blood and picks up S1.
    • 3. S1 molts to S3 in mosquito, time temp. depend.
    • 4. Mosquito inserts S3 & saliva in Dog#2.
    • 5. S3 molts to (3-5 days) S4 in subcutaneous tissue.
    • 6. S4 stays in subcutaneous tissue for 100 days.
    • 7. S4 molts to S5 (pre-adult) and it moves to pa.
    • 8. S5 pa stays in pa for 80 days and then molts to adult S5.
  196. Everyone knows that mosquitos transmit heartworms, but what about another filarid called _____ that is transmitted by the  ___
    Acanthocheilonema reconditum; flea (Ctenocephalis felis) the cat flea
  197. 5 blood tests for HW disease
    • 1. direct smear
    • 2. modified knot's Test
    • 3. Difil Test- best microfilaria test
    • 4. Hematocrit Tube- poorest test
    • 5. occult test- best HW Test
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