Overview of Human Development and Behavior in social environment- a multidimenstional framework

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Overview of Human Development and Behavior in social environment- a multidimenstional framework
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pg 1-7 chapter 1
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  1. Biopsychosocial approach
    • -integrating wide range of influences in assessment of client development and behavior at all levels:
    • 1. individual
    • 2. family
    • 3. group
    • 4. organizational
    • 5. community
    • 6. ¬†societal.
    • -Examines client's appraisals of these influences and reactions to them in terms of:
    • 1. physiology
    • 2. emotion
    • 3. cognition
    • 4. behavior
  2. multidimensional framework
    focuses on biophysical, psychological and social dimensions
  3. system of biopsychosocial functioning
    interacting biophysical, psychological and social dimensions
  4. biophysical dimension
    • Biophysical growth and development from prenatal to old age
  5. psychological dimension
    psychological functions that influence a person's ability to satisfy his needs: 1. early emotional bonding, 2. basic temperament, 3. cognitive development, 4. information processing, 5.communication, 6. personality, 7. identity, 8. self concept, 9. emotions and attitudes, 10. social regulation, 11. moral development
  6. social dimension
    Various groups a person interacts with over time: family, 2. social supports, 3. communities, 4. organizations, 5. social institutions (church, school, health care, welfare services),6. gender, 7. multicultural considerations
  7. biopsychosocial interaction
    behavior is result of interactions between a person and his envrionment
  8. developmental perspective
    biological, psychological and social systems have interacted in leading up to how things are currently
  9. current perspective
    biological, psychological and social systems are presently interacting to influence how things are currently
  10. nature-nurture debate vs. current nature-nurture debate
    • how much hereditary and environmental factors are responsible for the diversity in the development of human characteristics and behavior
    • vs.
    • currently viewed as combo of genetics and environment and focuses on :
    • relative contributions and how they interact to produce behavior
  11. maturationists
    believe development is a biloical process that occurs automatically in predictable, sequential stages over time
  12. learning theorists
    believe human development and behavior result of environmental factors
  13. heredity
    genetic endowment
  14. polygenic traits
    • traits influenced by multiple genes
    • ex. height, intelligence, personality
  15. heritability estimate
    extent to which phenotype varies within a group of people as the result of differences in genotype
  16. genotype
    genetic inheritance
  17. phenotype
    • the observed characteristics¬†
    • attributed to combo of heredity and environment
  18. human plasticity
    • the way environment can influence development over the lifespan
    • variations in environment can affect person's: 1. cognitive and social functioning, 2. personality, 3.physical and mental health regardless of heredity.
    • ex. genetically predisposed to schizophrenia but doesn't get it
  19. interactionist theories
    • how genetics and environment interact to produce behavior
    • Freud, Piaget and Kohlberg
  20. importance of heredity and environment at various points in lifespan
    • heredity: critical during early stages of development
    • environmental factors: later stages, people get older and behavior is result of environmental influences
  21. Cultural context Theory
    • depending on cultural context, the way an event is experienced and interpreted, the same factors will have different effects on development
    • Bronfenbrenner and Erikson
  22. critical period
    • specific period of time when an organism is particularly sensitive to a certain stimuli that can have either a positive or negative impact on development.
    • first described by ethologists who found that organisms must be exposed to particular environmental stimuli in order for a behavior to develop
    • several critical periods for physical development but not for behavior
  23. sensitive periods
    • longer and more flexible than critical periods, not tied to age or maturational stage
    • there are sensitive periods for human behavior: attachment and language
  24. Funnel theory
    • person in environment theory
    • disproven early theory of development
    • believed that change only occurred during first half of life and capacity shrinks over time
  25. adaptation
    ability to respond effectively to ongoing biological, psychological and social demands
  26. developmental flexibility
    capacity to adapt and succeed in changing environments
  27. capacity for adaptation
    • affected by biological/genetic factors: skills, beliefs, values and social expectation that need to change in response to environmental demands and cultural traditions and practices.
    • can improve capacity by improving behavioral competence in adapting to bio,pscho, social demands or improving environment
  28. Bronfenbrenner's ecological model
    • human development involves interactions between individual and context
    • context has 4 nested levels:
    • microsystem
    • mesosystem
    • exosystem
    • macrosystem
  29. microsystem
    • bronfenbrenner's ecological model
    • person's immediate environment:
    • face to face relationships with home, school, work, neighbors
    • relationships with parents, siblings, peers, teachers, coworkers
  30. mesosystem
    • bronfenbrenner's ecological model
    • interactions between componenets of microsystem
    • ex. influence of family factors on child's behavior at school
  31. exosystem
    • bronfenbrenner's ecological model
    • broader environment affecting person's immediate environment
    • larger social entities that influence the personal system even though they are not directly involved with them
    • ex. for a child: parent's work, school board, mass media
  32. macrosystem
    • bronfenbrenner's ecological model
    • overarching environmental influences: cultural beliefs and practices, economic conditions, political ideologies
  33. Ecology
    study of relationship between organism and its environment
  34. ecological systems perspective (ecosystems model)
    combo of systems theory and ecology
  35. transactional view of person-environment relationshp
    • ecosystems perspective
    • C.B. Germain
    • individual and his environment are in constant circular exchanges, reciprocally shaping and influencing over time
  36. person-situation duality
    • ecosystems perspective
    • Gordon (1969)
    • transactions between person 's coping patterns and qualities in environment
  37. transactional
    expressing a relationship between person and environment, not just person or just environment
  38. Adaptedness
    • central concept in ecology
    • goodness of fit with his environment
    • adaptive balance of individual's rights, needs, capacities and goals with physical and social environment
  39. adaptive processes
    • ecological concept
    • active efforts to make physiological or psychological changes to fit the demands/opportunities of his environment¬†
    • or
    • change enviornment to meet his needs, rights and goals
    • continuous process
  40. Stress: positive and negative
    • either positive or negative person-environment relationship
    • positive" person feels it's a challenge
    • negative: person feels unable to cope with it
  41. coping
    physiological, psychological and behavioral response due to stress
  42. functions of coping
    problem solving, managing negative feelings and maintaining self esteem
  43. 4 transactional concepts
    • human relatedness
    • competence
    • self direction
    • identity and self esteem
  44. niche
    • ecosystems concept
    • individual or group's concept in social structure related to power and oppression
    • shaped by set of rights
  45. habitat
    • ecosystems concept
    • settings where an organism is found
    • should support social setting that suits lifestyle
    • when it doesn't can produce feelings of isolation and despair
  46. ecological systems principles (7)
    • 1. problems are viewed in environmental context
    • 2. individuals, groups, orgs are always interacting with each other and other systems in environment
    • 3. problem system- human and environmental setting. every problem system is unique bc its subsystems have its own interactions and characteristics
    • 4. individuals need adequate environmental resource and positive transactions with environment ino order to accomplish important developmental tasks and fill needs
    • 5. goal of coping efforts: adaptive person-environment fit
    • 6. must account for all systems (individual, interpersonal, communal/societal, physical environment) involved since humans and environments mutually affect each other.
    • 7. need to help people find ways of meeting needs by addressing deficits in coping strategies, resources by connecting them to resources or improving capacity.
  47. Lewin's field theory (1936)
    • B=f(P,E) (behavior is function of person and environment)
    • field: lifespace is total enviornment
    • behavior is movement through regions of life space
    • regions have positive valence or negative valence
    • valence is developed as person and environment begin to change
    • 3 motivational conflicts
  48. lewin's theory applied: 3 motivational conflicts
    • approach-approach: person attracted to two equally desirable goals
    • ex. choosing between two good jobs
    • avoidance-avoidance: choosing between two bad choices
    • ex. being laid off or choosing lower paying job
    • approach-avoidance: goal has both positive and negative aspects
    • ex.decing to accept a promotion that pays more but has more stress
  49. risks
    hazards to person or environment that increase the likelihood of a problem
  50. protective factors
    promote personal competence and successful development
  51. resilience
    function adaptively despite exposure to risks
  52. resilience studies (3)
    • werner and smith: positive outcomes for high risk babies associated with: 1. easy temperament, 2. high degree of social responsivity, 3. good communication skills, 4. consistent eating and sleeping patterns, 5. stable support from caregiver.
    • negative effects associated with poverty, family instability and maternal health problems
    • Rutter (1985): Rutter's indicators (family risk factors):1. severe marital discord, 2. low ses, 3. overcrowding/large family size, 4. parental criminality, 5. maternal psychopathology, 6. child placed outside of home.
    • Masten (2001) Adolescent stress resistance: 1. positive and nurturant relationships, 2. easy temperament and positive outlook on future, 3. internal locus of control, 4. good self regulation, 5. active coping style, 6. good social skills and support, 7. good cognitive skills, 8. outside activities and hobbies.

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