Psychology - week 9 - chapter 8

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Author:
anniemmarsh
ID:
275810
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Psychology - week 9 - chapter 8
Updated:
2014-06-01 11:47:27
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week
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Description:
exam prep, week 9 - chapter 8 - thoughts and language
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  1. thinking is:
    • manipulating mental representations for a purpose.
    • most of the time we think using mental images and mental models
  2. cognitive shortcuts are known as:
    they allow us to:
    • heuristics:
    • make rapid judgements - can sometimes lead to irrational choices :P
  3. explicit cognition involves:
    conscious manipulation of representations
  4. implicit cognition involves:
    cognition outside of our awareness
  5. emotion and motivation play a substantial role in everyday cognition as they:
    may substantially influence the way people risk assess
  6. connectionism asserts that:
    most cognitive processes occur simultaneously through the action of multiple activated networks
  7. reasoning is:
    the process people generate and evaluate argument and beliefs
  8. problem solving is:
    the process transforming one situation into another to meet a goal
  9. decision making is:
    weighing the pros and cons of different alternatives in order to make a choice
  10. language is:
    a system of symbols, sounds, meanings and rules which allows communication amond humans
  11. communication largely relies on non-verbal communication which involves:
    • tone of voice
    • body language
    • gestures
    • physical distance
    • facial expressions
    • ect
  12. a concept is:
    a mental representation of a class of objects, ideas or events that share common properties
  13. categorisation is:
    the process of identifying an object to belong ti a certain category.
  14. inductive reasoning is:
    reasoning from specific observations to more general propositions
  15. deductive reasoning is:
    logical reasoning that draws a conclusion from a set of assumptions or premises that are based on the rules of logic.
  16. a syllogism consists of:
    2 things that lead to a logical conclusion.

    • e.g. -
    • (A) all dogs have fur
    • (B) Neville is a dog
    • THEREFORE
    • (C) Neville has fur
  17. analogical reasoning:
    is the process where people understand a novel situation by comparing it to a similar one.

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