Biology: Chapter 2

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  1. matter?
    anything that takes up space
  2. 3 states?
    • solid 
    • liquid
    • gas
  3. elements?
    substances that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by chemical processes
  4. How many natural elements in existence?
  5. What 6 elements are basic to life?
    • carbon 
    • hydrogen 
    • nitrogen 
    • oxygen 
    • phosphorous 
    • sulfur
  6. atom?
    smallest unit of element that still retains properties of the element
  7. What subatomic particles makeup atoms?
    • electron 
    • proton
    • neutron
  8. electron?
    • negative charge 
    • least massive 
    • transferred from one atom to another forming ions
  9. Nucleus of the atoms?
    protons and neutrons
  10. Electron inner shell?
    • can hold 2 electrons 
    • lower energy level
  11. Electron outer shell?
    • higher energy level 
    • can hold 8 electrons
  12. atomic number?
    • what defines each element.
    • is equal to the number of protons in the atom 
    • located above the atomic symbol
  13. atomic mass?
    • equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons 
    • located below the atomic symbol
  14. chemical bonding?
    atoms combine to form molecules or compounds
  15. valence shell?
    outer shells of atoms
  16. What elements have 2 electrons in valence shell?
    • hydrogen (H)
    • helium (He)
  17. octet rule?
    atoms are stable w/ 8 electrons in the valence shell
  18. valence electrons?
    electrons in outer shell that can participate in forming chemical bonds with other atoms
  19. compound?
    substance created by the bonding of two or more different elements
  20. molecule?
    smallest unit of a compound still having the properties of the compound
  21. In what ways do atoms bond?
    • ionic bonding 
    • covalent bonding
  22. ionic bonding?
    one atom "gives up" one or more electrons to another
  23. covalent bonding?
    atoms "share" one or more electrons with each other
  24. electronegativity?
    power of an atoms in a covalent bond to attract electrons to itself
  25. What are the two types of covalent bonds?
    • nonpolar covalent bond 
    • polar covalent bond
  26. nonpolar covalent bond?
    • atoms have equal electronegativity 
    • no polarity
  27. polar covalent bond?
    • unequal elecronegativity among atoms
    • electrons unequally shared 
    • one atom has a stronger attraction  
    • polar
  28. What ways can you represent molecules?
    • molecular formula 
    • structural formula 
    • bohr model 
    • ball and stick model 
    • space-filling model
  29. hydrogen bonding?
    • attractive intermolecular force between two partial charges of opposite polarity 
    • much weaker than covalent and ionic bonds
  30. solution?
    fluid hat contains a dissolved solid
  31. solute?
    substance that is dissolved in a solution
  32. solvent?
    liquid portion of solutions that serves o dissolve a solute
  33. hydrophilic?
    • water loving 
    • compounds interact with water
  34. hydrophobic?
    • water fearing 
    • compounds do not interact with water 
    • non-polar covalent molecules
  35. pH?
    acidity or basicity of solution
  36. acid?
    give up H+ in solution
  37. base?
    take up H+ or release OH- (hydroxicde) ions in solution
  38. pH scale?
    • ranges from 0-14 
    • 0= most acidic 
    • 14= most basic 
    • 7= netural= pure water
  39. common acids?
    • stomach acid 
    • lemon juice 
    • soda 
    • coffee
  40. common bases?
    • bleach 
    • ammonia 
    • baking soda
  41. buffer?
    a chemical or combination of chemicals that resist changes in pH and helps keep pH within normal limits
  42. isotopes?
    have the same number of protons, but they different in atomic mass due to different numbers of neutrons
Card Set:
Biology: Chapter 2
2014-06-02 00:34:00
Chapter 2: Chemistry
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