Biology: Chapter 2
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anything that takes up space
substances that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by chemical processes
How many natural elements in existence?
What 6 elements are basic to life?
smallest unit of element that still retains properties of the element
What subatomic particles makeup atoms?
- negative charge
- least massive
- transferred from one atom to another forming ions
Nucleus of the atoms?
protons and neutrons
Electron inner shell?
- can hold 2 electrons
- lower energy level
Electron outer shell?
- higher energy level
- can hold 8 electrons
- what defines each element.
- is equal to the number of protons in the atom
- located above the atomic symbol
- equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
- located below the atomic symbol
atoms combine to form molecules or compounds
outer shells of atoms
What elements have 2 electrons in valence shell?
atoms are stable w/ 8 electrons in the valence shell
electrons in outer shell that can participate in forming chemical bonds with other atoms
substance created by the bonding of two or more different elements
smallest unit of a compound still having the properties of the compound
In what ways do atoms bond?
- ionic bonding
- covalent bonding
one atom "gives up" one or more electrons to another
atoms "share" one or more electrons with each other
power of an atoms in a covalent bond to attract electrons to itself
What are the two types of covalent bonds?
- nonpolar covalent bond
- polar covalent bond
nonpolar covalent bond?
- atoms have equal electronegativity
- no polarity
polar covalent bond?
- unequal elecronegativity among atoms
- electrons unequally shared
- one atom has a stronger attraction
What ways can you represent molecules?
- molecular formula
- structural formula
- bohr model
- ball and stick model
- space-filling model
- attractive intermolecular force between two partial charges of opposite polarity
- much weaker than covalent and ionic bonds
fluid hat contains a dissolved solid
substance that is dissolved in a solution
liquid portion of solutions that serves o dissolve a solute
- water loving
- compounds interact with water
- water fearing
- compounds do not interact with water
- non-polar covalent molecules
acidity or basicity of solution
give up H+ in solution
take up H+ or release OH- (hydroxicde) ions in solution
- ranges from 0-14
- 0= most acidic
- 14= most basic
- 7= netural= pure water
- stomach acid
- lemon juice
- baking soda
a chemical or combination of chemicals that resist changes in pH and helps keep pH within normal limits
have the same number of protons, but they different in atomic mass due to different numbers of neutrons
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