Biology: Chapter 2
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Biology: Chapter 2
Chapter 2: Chemistry
anything that takes up space
substances that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by chemical processes
How many natural elements in existence?
What 6 elements are basic to life?
smallest unit of element that still retains properties of the element
What subatomic particles makeup atoms?
transferred from one atom to another forming ions
Nucleus of the atoms?
protons and neutrons
Electron inner shell?
can hold 2 electrons
lower energy level
Electron outer shell?
higher energy level
can hold 8 electrons
what defines each element.
is equal to the number of protons in the atom
located above the atomic symbol
equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
located below the atomic symbol
atoms combine to form molecules or compounds
outer shells of atoms
What elements have 2 electrons in valence shell?
atoms are stable w/ 8 electrons in the valence shell
electrons in outer shell that can participate in forming chemical bonds with other atoms
substance created by the bonding of two or more different elements
smallest unit of a compound still having the properties of the compound
In what ways do atoms bond?
one atom "gives up" one or more electrons to another
atoms "share" one or more electrons with each other
power of an atoms in a covalent bond to attract electrons to itself
What are the two types of covalent bonds?
nonpolar covalent bond
polar covalent bond
nonpolar covalent bond?
atoms have equal electronegativity
polar covalent bond?
unequal elecronegativity among atoms
electrons unequally shared
one atom has a stronger attraction
What ways can you represent molecules?
ball and stick model
attractive intermolecular force between two partial charges of opposite polarity
much weaker than covalent and ionic bonds
fluid hat contains a dissolved solid
substance that is dissolved in a solution
liquid portion of solutions that serves o dissolve a solute
compounds interact with water
compounds do not interact with water
non-polar covalent molecules
acidity or basicity of solution
give up H+ in solution
take up H+ or release OH- (hydroxicde) ions in solution
ranges from 0-14
0= most acidic
14= most basic
7= netural= pure water
a chemical or combination of chemicals that resist changes in pH and helps keep pH within normal limits
have the same number of protons, but they different in atomic mass due to different numbers of neutrons