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  1. what structure protects the kidneys
    lower ribcage
  2. each ureter lies _____ to its respective kidney
  3. Psoas muscle causes the kidneys to rotae backwards at a ____ deg angle
  4. each kidney is surrounded by a mass of fatty tissue called ______
    what is the function
    • adipose capsule or perirenal fat
    • holds the kidneys up in place and allows the kidney to radiographically on films
  5. the kidneys lie between what two structures
    midway between xiphoid process and iliac crest
  6. which kidney is higher than the other
    the bottom of the kidney lies at what vertebrae
    • left kidney
    • L3
  7. what is nephroptosis
    downward displacement of the kidneys
  8. how do kidneys receive blood from where
    arterial blood is received by the kidneys from the abdominal aorta via the left and right renal arteries
  9. the renal veins connect directly to what to retrun blood to the right side of the heart
    inferior vena cava
  10. what is the hilum
    the longitudinal fissure along the medial border of each kidney
  11. each kidney is divided into an upper and lower part called
  12. what is the primary function of the urinary system
    is the production of urine and its elimination from the body
  13. during the production of kidneys what are the three things it does during this process
    • removes nitrogenous wastes
    • regulates water levels in the body
    • regulates acid base balance and electrolyte levels
  14. what nitrogenous wastes are formed during the normal metabolism of proteins
    urea and creatinine
  15. the buildup of nitrogenous waste in the blood is called
  16. what is the test used to look up the function of the kidneys
    a bun/creatinine test
  17. what is the fibrous capsule surrounding each capsule
    the cortex
  18. the medulla is formed by _____ under the cortex
    8-18 conical masses called renal pyramids
  19. the cortex or area between each renal pyramid is called a _____
    renal column
  20. what is the renal pyramid
    is a collection of tubules that converge at an opening at the renal papilla and drain into the minor calyx
  21. the minor calyces unite to form the _____
    the major calyces unite to form the _____ and narrow into the _____
    • major calyces
    • renal pelvis: ureters
  22. what is the term used to describe the total functional portions of the kidneys
    renal parenchyma
  23. the structural and function unit of the kidneys is the microscopic _________
    nephron unit
  24. what arteries supply to and from the glomeruli
    • afferent arterioles supply blood to the glomeruli
    • efferent arterioles take blood away
  25. each glomeruli is surrounded by a _____ which is the proximal portion of each nephron unit
    glomerular capsule (bowmans capsule)
  26. explain the flow of glomerular filtrate in the nephron and collecting duct
    the GF travels from bowmans capsule to a proximal convoluted tubule to the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of henle to a distal convoluted tubule to a collecting tubule and then finally into a minor calyx
  27. the filtrate is termed ______ by the time it reaches the minor calyx
  28. what is the function of the ureters
    how long are ureters
    • to convey urine from kidneys to bladder
    • 28-34cm
  29. where is the 3 points of constriction
    what are the variations in ureter size
    which is most constricted
    • uretropelvic junction
    • brim of the pelvis (where iliac blood vessels cross over the ureters)
    • ureterovesical junction (most constricted)

    1mm to 1cm

    ureterovesical junction
  30. what is the trigone
    is the muscular area formed by the entrance of the two ureters and the exit site of the urethra and is firmly attached to the floor of the pelvis
  31. how much urine is need to fill the bladder to feel the desired to void
    what is the total capacity of the bladder
    • 250 ml
    • varies from 350-500ml
  32. the act of voiding is called ____ (2 words)
    micturation and urination
  33. involuntary urination is called _____
    is urination voluntary
    • incontinence
    • yes
  34. what is the gland surrounding the urethra in men
    prostate gland
  35. what are the two most common side effects after injection of iodinated contrast media
    temporary hot flash and metallic taste in the mouth
  36. what is the pt history for an IVP/IVU
    • Have you ever had hay fever, asthma or hives?
    • Are you allergic to any drugs or medication?
    • Are you allergic to iodine?
    • Are you allergic to any foods?
    • Are you currently taking Glucophage?
    • Have you ever have an xray exam that required an
    • injection into an artery or vein?
  37. what is the pt prep for an IVU (5)
    • light evening meal prior to procedure
    • bowel cleansing cathartic
    • npo after midnight
    • enema morning of examination
    • void prior to procedure
  38. before doing an IVU study and injecting contrast what must we check
    the pt chart to determine BUN and creatinine levels and it should be reported before a urinary study
  39. elevated levels of BUN and creatinine levels are indicators of ____
    acute or chronic renal failure
  40. what are the normal levels of creatinine and BUN
    • creatinine 0.6-1.5mg/dl
    • BUN 8-25mg
  41. what is the purpose of glucophage
    it is given for the management of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovarian syndrome
  42. why is it important for glucophage be withheld for 48 hrs prior to a contrast media procedure and can be resinstituted after the procedure providing kidney function is normal recommended by the ACR
    the combination of iodinated contrast and glucophage has been proved to increase the risk of contrast media induced renal failure
  43. what is the urticaria
  44. between bowmans capsule and the minor calyces more than _____ of the filtrate is reabsorbed into the kidneys venous system
  45. the loop of henle and the collecting tubules are located primarily where
    in medulla
  46. what are the mild reactions to contrast media during an IVU
    • nausea and vomiting
    • hives (uticaria)
    • itching
    • sneezing
    • extravasion (burning or numbness at injection site) missing a vein
    • vasovagal response (fainting)
  47. what are the moderate reactions to contrast media (more severe than mild)
    • excessive urticaria
    • tachycardia
    • giant hives
    • excessive vomiting
  48. what are the severe reactions to contrast media
    • very low blood pressure
    • cardiac or respiratory arrest
    • loss of consciousness
    • laryngeal edema
    • cyanosis (bluish discoloration)
    • difficulty breathing
    • profound shock
  49. the renal pyramuds are primarily a collection of tubules that converge at an opening called the
    renal papilla
  50. the kidneys and ureters are _______ (location)
    the urinary bladder urethra and male reproductive organs are
    • retroperitoneal
    • infraperitoneal
  51. what are two functions of the urethra
    to eliminate stored urine in bladder and serve as a passageway for semen
  52. which strcutures are located in the renal cortex
    • DCT
    • afferent arteriole
    • efferent art.
    • bowmans capsule
    • PCT
  53. which structures are located in the medulla
    • loop of henle
    • descending limb
    • ascending limb
    • collecting tube
Card Set:
2014-06-21 18:46:48

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