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- what is a broadcast storm
- is the endless flooding of a broadcast frame by switches in the network
what is the IEEE specification for spanning tree protocol
what is the purpose of spanning tree protocol
provides networks the ability to run a loop-free redundant topology
what does BPDU stand for
bridge protocol data unit
what are the four port states available when dealing with spanning tree protocol
what does STP stand for
spanning tree protocol
what does RSTP stand for
rapid spanning tree protocol
what happens if a BPDU is not received within the 20 second MAXAGE time,
the device identifies that the topology has changed and a Spanning Tree Recalculation must be performed.
what does TCA stand for
Topology Change Acknowledgment
what does TC stand for
what configuration messages does RSTP use to allow rapid failure detection and fast re-convergence time
what does VLAN stand for
virtual local area network
what is the purpose of VLAN
it enables network adminstators to group user together into common broadcast domains regardless of their physical location on the network
how many VLANs can a port on a switch belong to at the same time
what are three types of VLAN memberships
- MAC-based VLAN membership
- protocol-based VLAN membership
- authentication-based VLAN membership
what is the IEEE specification for VLANs and VLAN trunking
what is the process of "trunking"
a method of carrying multiple VLANs across one connection is accomplished through a process
what is the minimum bandwidth required to support a trunk
what device can be used to provide inter-VLAN communication
what devices can only be used with VLAN tagging
switches, routers, and special purpose NICs.
what is VLAN tagging
When data is received on a port that is assigned to a VLAN, the switch applies a tag that identifies which VLAN the traffic originated from.
what is authentication-based VLAN membership
it uses the most common form of authentication is a user ID and password to determine which VLAN the member is assigned to
what is MAC-base VLAN membership
The network administrator essentially creates a table that defines which MAC addresses belong with what VLAN.
what is port-based VLAN membership
VLANs are assigned on a per-port basis.
what are three types of casts used at layer 3
what will the destination IP address of a layer 3 multicast be
what must the router know in order to route packets to the destination network
- know the location of the destination network
- know where to route data in the event the destination network is unknown
where does a router store information regarding the existence of networks and their locations
routing table in the router's memory
what networks does a router intrinsically know
directly connected networks
what are the two ways a router can learn about the existence of networks
what is a static route
are administatively defined routes that specify the explicit path that packets must take while moving between a source and destination device
what are static routes commonly used for
- stub networks
- gateway of last resort
what is an administrative distance
if there are several routing sources providing common routing information, an "administrative distance" value is used to rate the trustworthiness of each routing source
what are the three primary classes of dynamic routing protocols
- distance vector
- balanced hybrid
list eight common metrics used by routing protocols
- hop count
what is "routing by rumor"
route selection process
what is routing
Routing is the process by which a packet moves from a source network to the destination network.
what is stub network
A stub network is a network accessed by a single route.
the assignment of a gateway of last resort is a special form of static route assignment is called a
what does RIP stand for
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
what does OSPF stand for
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
what does IS-IS stand for
Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS)
what does IGRP stand for
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
what does EIGRP stand for
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
what does BGP stand for
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
what are common routing protocols
- Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
- Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
- Intermediate System to Intermediate System
- (IS-IS) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
- Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
- NetWare Link State Protocol (NLSP)
- Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
what is sthe distance vector
Determines the distance and direction (vector) to any link in the internetwork.
Recreates the exact topology of the entire internetwork for route computation.
what is a balaced hybrid
Combines aspects of the distance vector and link state routing protocols.
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