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What is the capital of the Byzantine Empire?
What is the modern day name for Constantinople?
What is Istanbul protected by?
13 miles of walls and gates
What is Justinian's law similar to?
Roman 12 tables
What did Empress Theodora(wife of Justinian) do?
- Helped crush the Nika Rebellion
- Enforced women's rights
What was the Hagia Sophia and what did it symbolize?
- The Hagia Sophia was a lavish church built during the reign of Justinian. It was considered his greatest achievement
- Inside symbolized heaven while the outside symbolized earth
What took place at the Hippodrome?
- Chariot races
- Nika rebellion slaughter
What did Justinian do?
- Built Hagia Sophia
- Wrote a set of written law codes
- Re captured roman territory
What is the Nika Rebellion?
Arguments over chariot races that led to revolts.
What is an Icon?
Image of any religious figure
What are iconoclasts and which church were they from?
- icon smashers/destroyers
- From the Eastern Orthodox Church
Which church immediately approved of icons?
The Roman Catholic Church
What did conflicts between the eastern and western churches over icons lead to?
The Great Schism
Who are bedouins?
- original, native Arabs.
- Nomads in Sahara Desert
What is Mecca and why is it significant?
- Most important city of Islam religion
- People go there on their Hajj journey to see and touch the Kabba
- Muhammed was exiled from Mecca because they did not approve of his teachings
What is the Kabba?
- Shrine dedicated to Allah by Muhammed
- Found today in Mecca
What is the Hijrah?
- Muhammed's journey from Mecca to Medina to spread his teachings
- *Marks the beginning of the Muslim calender(622 AD)*
What is a (or 'the' idk) Hajj?
- A journey a Muslim individual makes once in a lifetime.
- They visit Mecca and partake in holy rituals.
What is the Quran?
- Holy book
- God's message to Muhammed
- Final message from God to humanity
What is the Sunna?
- A compilation of Muhammad's personal words and deeds
- The Hadith is a part of this
What did the Sunna and Quran provide?
Guiding rules for all Muslims
What are the 5 Pillars of Faith/Islam?
- 1-Shahada-Belief in 1 god
- 2-Salat-Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
- 3-Zakat-Almsgiving(give to poor)
- 4-Sawm-Fasting from sunrise to sunset during month of Ramadan
- 5-Hajj-Pilgrimage to Mecca
What were the 5 parts of Muhammad's teachings?
- 2- All believers of Allah are equal under him
- 3-Rich should share their wealth
- 4-Everyone should try to live righteously
- 5-All would be subjected to a judgement day
What is Feudalism?
- The relationship between social classes
- exchange of and for protection
- *NO SOCIAL MOBILITY
What does a knight do?
- grants protection in return for land
- follows code of chivalry
what is Manorialism?
- The relationship between those who worked the land and those who owned it
- economic relationship
Who was charlemagne and what did he accomplish?
- "Light of the dark ages"
- set up foundation for education
- converted many to christianity(mostly by force)
- unified europe
What was the outcome of the Battle of Hastings?
- William the Conquerer from Normandy won and assumed the throne
- Became first foreign ruler of England
What was the Magna Carta?
- Signed by King John(everyone hated)
- Gave less power to monarchs and more to the people
what is excommunication?
When the priest exiles you from the church
What is a monastery?
- kept records
- place where monks could live peacefully
What river was Timbuktu located on?
The Niger River
What two things greatly lead to a spread of religion?
FILL IN THE BLANK: Africa's _____ ______ has lead to cultural diversity.
What was the Gupta Empire?
- Ruler during the Indian Golden age
- Made advances in math,science, art and literature
- invented decimal system
What do the Shiite Muslims believe?
The caliph has to be a descendent from Muhammad.
What do the Sunni Muslims believe?
the caliph should be the best available candidate
What was the impact of the Crusades?
- spread religion
- most successful failure
- gave more demand for products in the Middle East
- made more people, like Columbus, want to explore
What increases when trade increases?
- wealth(in most cases)
- cultural diffusion
What does it mean to have a centralized government?
- It is when all of the power is focused in one governing body
- more organized
- Rome is a good example of this
What is Feudalism?
- social relationship between classes
- exchange of land for protection
- no social mobility
What is Divine right?
God has given a person the blessing to rule
What is the medieval period's artistic legacy?
Cathedrals(shows godly obsession)
What was the role of the Catholic church?
- People were united by their common faith
- The Church had power and wealth because people payed money to the church through tithes(church taxes) and donation
- it was the main center of learning
Who was Marco Polo?
- Wrote a book called 'A Description of the World'.
- this sparked interest in people and partially led to the 'Age of Exploration'
Who were the mongols?
- Nomadic civilization on horseback
- led by Ghengis Khan
- conquered China
- established largest empire(pacific-black sea)
What is Confucianism?
- Based of 5 relationships
- In order for a stable society, there are followers and leaders
- Emphasized group rather than individual welfare
What is Daoism?
- Based on the teachings of Laozi
- Humans should see themselves as a part of nature and understand change as a part of everything
- Also, balance of opposite forces(yin and yang)
What was China's Golden age?
- Under tang and son dynasty
- Technological golden age
- invented things such as fireworks, the mechanical clock, the printing press, and paper money
What impact did Africa's geography have?
- DIVERSE CULTURE
- mostly made of of desert(Sahara) and grassland (Savanna)
What did the 3 african kingdoms(ghana, mali, songhai) have in common?
- near rivers
- trade gold
- all near trade routes
What is important about Timbuktu?
- Commercial and cultural center
- wealthiest city
what's significant about trans-saharan trade?
- It is trade across the Sahara desert between Arabs and Africans
- african gold was traded for the arab's salt and the idea of islam was passed to africa
What is mercantilism?
- economic system by which colonies are exploited for the resources by the mother country
- Triangular trade is part of this
- A result of the age of exploration
What is Humanism?
- Questioning of human ability
- foundation of changes
How has the perspective of art changed during the renaissance?
- The paintings and objects in them had more depth
- Things looked more 3-d and there was close detail in the background(objects in distance)
Who was John Calvin?
- a reformer who attacked the church
- believed in pre-destination (soul is pre determined if its good or bad)
What are the 95 theses?
- All of the things Martin Luther thought was wrong with the church
- "Dethrone the Pope and enthrone the Bible!"
- he's got 95 problems and the Bible 'aint one
- The Pope is a problem
What helped to spread Martin Luther's messages?
The printing press
Who was Martin Luther?
- Protested against abuse and corruption of the catholic church
- came up with 95 theses
- greatly weakened the churches power and turned people against the church
What are indulgences?
- You can pay your way out of sins
- (aww it's not chocolate?)
What is the counter-reformation?
- churches respond to Martin Luther's attacks
- church needs to change to get power
What is significant about the Olmec civilization?
It was the earliest latin american civilization
What are the similarities between the Aztec, Maya, and Incas civilization?
They all had Calendars, pyramid temples, and agriculture