LPI Exam 1 (System Architecture)

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LPI Exam 1 (System Architecture)
2014-06-04 16:55:34
linux ubuntu unix
Practice questions fro the Linux professional institute certification 1 exam (LPIC-1). Questions are applied with the Ubuntu OS.
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  1. What is an integrated peripheral?
    • A peripheral device that is supported on the mother board itself.
    • With the steadily declining costs and size of integrated circuits, it is now possible to include support for many peripherals on the motherboard. By combining many functions on one Printed Circuit Board (PCB), the physical size and total cost of the system may be reduced; highly integrated motherboards are thus especially popular in small form factor and budget computers.
  2. What are examples of integrated peripherals?
    • Disk controllers for a floppy disk drive, up to 2 PATA drives, and up to 6 SATA drives (including RAID 0/1 support)
    • integrated graphics controller supporting 2D and 3D graphics, with VGA and TV output
    • integrated sound card supporting 8-channel (7.1) audio and S/PDIF output
    • Fast Ethernet network controller for 10/100 Mbit networking
    • USB 2.0 controller supporting up to 12 USB portsIrDA controller for infrared data communication (e.g. with an IrDA-enabled cellular phone or printer)
    • Temperature, voltage, and fan-speed sensors that allow software to monitor the health of computer component.
  3. How could an integrated peripheral be enable?
  4. How could an integrated peripheral be disabled?
  5. What is a peripheral?
    A device that is connected to a host computer, but not an integral part of it. It expands the host's capabilities but does not form part of the core computer architecture. It is often, but not always, partially or completely dependent on the host. There are 3 kinds: Input, Output, and Storage.
  6. What is the purpose for input peripherals?
    They are used to interact with, or send data to the computer (mouse, keyboards, microphone, webcam, etc.)
  7. What is the purpose for output peripherals?
    To provide output to the user from the computer (monitors, printers, speakers, etc.)
  8. What is the purpose of a storage peripheral?
    To store data processed by the computer (hard drives, flash drives, solid-state drives, etc.)
  9. Which of the following is NOT a peripheral device?
    A) microphone
    B) image scanner
    C) tape drive
    D) graphics card
    E) expansion card
    F) central processing unit
    F) central processing unit
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following is NOT a peripheral device?
    A) motherboard case
    B) head set
    C) Sandisk card
    D) speaker
    E) digital camera
    F) webcam
    A) motherboard case
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Is RAM an example of a peripheral?
    random access memory - straddles the line between peripheral and primary component; it is technically a storage peripheral, but is required for every major function of a modern computer and removing the RAM will effectively disable any modern machine.
  12. According to the most technical definition, the only pieces of a computer not considered to be peripherals are what?
    central processing unit, power supply, motherboard, and computer case.
  13. What are peripherals outside of the computer case called?
    Devices that exist outside the computer case are called external peripherals, or auxiliary components.
  14. What are peripherals inside of the computer case called?
    internal peripherals
  15. What is the difference between a system on a chip (SoC) and a micro-controller?
    Micro-controllers typically have under 100 kB of RAM (often just a few kilobytes) and often really are single-chip-systems, whereas the term SoC is typically used for more powerful processors, capable of running software such as the desktop versions of Windows and Linux, which need external memory chips (flash, RAM) to be useful, and which are used with various external peripherals. In short, for larger systems, the term system on a chip is a hyperbole, indicating technical direction more than reality; increasing chip integration to reduce manufacturing costs and to enable smaller systems. Many interesting systems are too complex to fit on just one chip built with a process optimized for just one of the system's tasks.
  16. What is a system on a chip (SoC)?
    A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate. SoCs are very common in the mobile electronics market because of their low power consumption. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems.
  17. What is a cold plug device?
    Computer components are usually described as cold-pluggable if the computer system must be powered down to add or remove them.
  18. What is a hot plug device?
    hot-pluggable components can be added or removed without powering down the computer.
  19. What are some examples of a cold plug device?
    In most computer systems, CPUs and memory are cold pluggable, but it is common for high-end servers and mainframes to feature hot plug capability of these components.
  20. What are examples of hot pluggable devices?
    Mouse, keyboard,
  21. What is one reason for hot swapping?
    Hot swapping is used whenever it is desirable to change the configuration or repair a working system without interrupting its operation. It may simply be for convenience of avoiding the delay and nuisance of shutting down and then restarting complex equipment or because it is essential for equipment, such as a server, to be continually active. Hot swapping may be used to add or remove peripherals or components, to allow a device to synchronize data with a computer, and to replace faulty modules without interrupting equipment operation.
  22. What peripheral uses hot swapping and redundancy?
    Computer RAID disk arrays allow a faulty disk to be hot-swapped for a new one; the new one is configured to become part of the array automatically or by user command. A machine may have dual power supplies, each adequate to power the machine; a faulty one may be hot-swapped.
  23. Why would computer equipment use redundancy?
    Equipment may be designed with redundancy so that in the event of the failure of a component, other parts of the system carry out its functions while the faulty component is removed and a replacement connected. (ex RAID).
  24. What is the /sys directory used for in linux?
  25. What is the /proc directory used for?
  26. What is modprobe?
    A program to remove or add modules from the linux kernel.
  27. What is lspci?
    Lists all peripheral component interconnect (pci) devices.
  28. What is a peripheral component interconnect?
    • Introduced by Intel in 1992, a PCI bus is a 32-bit (133MBps) computer bus that is also available as a 64-bit bus and was the most commonly found and used computer bus in computers during the late 1990's and early 2000's. Unlike, ISA and earlier  expansion cards, PCI follows the PnP specification and therefore does not require any type of jumpers or dip switches. Below is an example of what the PCI slots looks like on a motherboard. In the picture, there are three PCI slots, PCI4, PCI5, and PCI6.
  29. What is lsusb?
    A program to list the usb devices.
  30. What is lsmod?
    A program to list the status of the Linux kernel modules.
  31. What is /dev used for?
    A directory that holds the files corresponding to devices connected to the computer.
  32. What is sysfs?
    • sysfs is a virtual file system provided by Linux. Sysfs
    • exports information about devices and drivers from the kernel device model to user space, and is also used for configuration. It is similar to the sysctl mechanism found in BSD systems, but implemented as a file system instead of a separate mechanism.
  33. What is udev?
    udev is a device manager for the Linux kernel. Primarily, it manages device nodes in /dev. It is the successor of devfsd and hotplug, which means that it handles the /dev directory and all user space actions when adding/removing devices, including firmware loading.
  34. What is hald?
    hald is a daemon that maintains a database of the devices connected to the system system in real-time. The daemon connects to the D-Bus system message bus to provide an API that applications can use to discover, monitor and invoke operations on devices.
  35. What is a daemon?
    In multitasking computer operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user. Traditionally daemon names end with the letter d: for example, syslogd is the daemon that implements the system logging facility and sshd is a daemon that services incoming SSH connections.
  36. How can we set the correct hardware ID for different devices in linux?
  37. How can we set the correct hardware ID for the boot device?
  38. What is a hardware id?
  39. How could we list details about the hardware of the computer?
    Use the LiSts HardWare (lshw) command.
  40. What tools/utilities can we use to manipulate USB devices?
    Still to do.
  41. Still left to do:
    Differentiate between the various types of mass storage devices.
    Set the correct hardware ID for different devices, especially the boot device.
    Determine hardware resources for devices.
    Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices