SNC1DW Chapter 2

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SNC1DW Chapter 2
2014-06-03 21:14:47
science biology ecology

Glossary terms and definitions for chapter 2.
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  1. Population
    All the individuals of a species that occupy a particular geographic area at a certain time.

    E.g. Canada's population contains roughly 35 million humans in 2014.
  2. Exponential growth
    Accelerating growth that produces a J-shaped curve when the population is graphed against time.

  3. Limiting factor
    • A factor that limits the growth, distribution, or amount of a population in an ecosystem.
    • E.g. resource deficit, disease, weather patterns, etc.
  4. Carrying capacity
    The size of a population that can be supported indefinitely by the available resources and services of an ecosystem.

  5. Ecological niche
    The way that an organism occupies a position in an ecosystem, including all the necessary biotic and abiotic factors.

    E.g. A brown bat's niche includes the insects it eats, its competitors, and its predators.
  6. Predator
    An organism that kills and consumes other organisms.

    E.g. Lions are a gazelle's predator.
  7. Prey
    An organism that is eaten as food by a predator.

    E.g. Gazelles are a lion's prey.
  8. Mutualism
    A symbiotic relationship between two species in which both species benefit from the relationship.

    E.g. Corals and algae live mutually.
  9. Parasite
    An organism whose niche is dependent on a close association with a larger host organism.

    E.g. The brainworm is a parasite to the white-tailed deer.
  10. Competition
    When two or more organisms compete for the same resource, such as food or space, in the same place at the same time.

    E.g. Brook and Nine-spine Sticklebacks compete for areas to feed from.
  11. Sustainable use
    Use that does not lead to long-term depletion of a resource or affect the diversity of the ecosystem from which the resource is obtained.

    E.g. If humans do not use resources in a sustainable way, the human niche may shrink over time.
  12. Doubling time
    The period of time that is required for a population to double in size.

    E.g. The present doubling time for humans is roughly 60 years.
  13. Ecological footprint
    A measure of the impact of an individual or a population on the environment in terms of energy consumption, land use, and waste production.

  14. Unsustainable
    A pattern of activity that leads to a decline in the function of an ecosystem.

    E.g. Using fossil fuels more and more make ecological footprints in this world potentially unsustainable.
  15. Sustainability
    Use of Earth's resources, including land and water, at levels that can continue forever.

    E.g. Using resources more efficiently increases its sustainability, as well as using less resources.
  16. Ecosystem services
    The benefits experienced by organisms, including humans, that are provided by sustainable ecosystems.

    E.g. provision of food/water, nutrient cycles, pollination and growth/decomposition balance.
  17. Desertification
    The change of non-desert land into a desert. May result from climate change and unsustainable farming or water use.

  18. Ecotourism
    A form of tourism that is sensitive to the health of an ecosystem and involves recreational activities provided by sustainable ecosystems.

    E.g. Whale-watching, watching birds migrate, etc.