Geography Final Exam review

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Geography Final Exam review
2014-06-04 00:25:29
Geography Final Exam

Final exam
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  1. What are some common push/pull factors? 
    Push Factors – make you move away.  Pull Factors – Draw you to a place.  Common factors include job loss or job opportunity, famine, war, ethnic persecution, or natural disasters.
  2. Describe and list examples of the different
    types of boundaries: Geometric,
    Physical, Cultural
    • Geometric – borders
    • that follow lines of latitude/longitude (US/Canada border, North/South Korea)

    • Physical – Can be
    • mountains, rivers, or oceans  (Andes,
    • Himalayas, Rio Grande, Australia)

    • Cultural – When
    • borders form along culture lines (India/Pakistan, many European countries)
  3. What does monotheistic/polytheistic mean? List
    examples of each.
    • Monotheistic – a
    • belief in one god – Islam, Judaism, and ChristianiyPolytheistic – a
    • belief in many gods – mostly found in ethnic religions such as Native American
    • religions (Sun God, Wind God, God of the Rains, etc)
  4. What are trade organizations and what do they do for member countries? List a few examples of trade organizations that have been discussed this year.
    • They work to make trade
    • easier between member countries, in the hope that it will make them more
    • dependent on each other (interdependence) and lead to less chance of conflict
    • and more economic prosperity for all.
  5. List the major characteristics of the following
    religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism
    • Christianity
    • – Abrahamic religion that began in SW Asia, belief in
    • God and his son, Jesus Christ. (Universalizing)

    • Islam
    • – Abrahamic religion that began in SW Asia, belief in
    • God and the prophet Muhammad. (Universalizing) Followers pray  facing Mecca 5 times a day

    • Judaism
    • – Original Abrahamic religion that began in SW Asia,
    • belief in God but rejects the teachings of Muhammad and Jesus Christ. (Ethnic)

    • Hinduism
    • – Began in India, belief in fulfilling your dharma by
    • earning positive karma that will allow for reincarnation to a better life.
    • (Ethnic)

    • Buddhism
    • – Began in India, diffused to China, belief in an
    • eight-fold path to enlightenment (Universalizing)
  6. What
    does OPEC stand for and what does the organization do?
    • Organization of
    • Petroleum Exporting Countries.  OPEC is a
    • union that agrees on oil pricing to help all oil exporting countries maximize
    • profits.
  7. What
    does UN stand for and what does the organization do?
    • United Nations.  The UN attempts to settle conflict and prevent
    • injustices around the world.
  8. What is
    Apartheid? Where did it take place and who are some important people involved
    that helped to end Apartheid?
    Government-sanctioned racial discrimination in South Africabetween 1948-1994.  Ended when NelsonMandela was elected as South Africa’s first black president in 1994.
  9. Why
    did most early civilizations develop along rivers?
    • Rivers provide food,
    • water, transportation, and fertile land.
  10. What
    physical features tend to support large population densities around the world?
    • Fertile plains and
    • valleys with access to fresh water.
  11. What is the agricultural revolution? What
    effects did it have on civilization?
    The discovery of farming 10,000 years ago.  It led to people being able to settle in oneplace and the beginning of civilization.
  12. Why did China institute a one child policy in
    its country?  .
    • To
    • slow a rapidly growing population
  13. Describe each economy type in detail : Free Market/Enterprise, Communist,
    • Free
    • Market/Enterprise – citizens are free to own and operate their own businesses
    • as they see fit

    • Communist –
    • A totalitarian government controls all means of production and business.

    • Socialist –
    • An elected government controls major industry such as healthcare, education,
    • and transportation, but the citizens are able to operate their own small
    • businesses.

    • Traditional
    • – Found in isolated areas, traditional economic systems are based on subsistence
    • production and local trading.
  14. List
    ways that people have modified their physical environments to better suit their
    • Desalinization plants in wealthy areas with little freshwater, terraced
    • farming in areas without flat land, irrigation in areas without plentiful rain,
    • and the development of dams to control flooding and provide electricity are all
    • examples of environment modification.
  15. What
    is deforestation and what regions around the world are facing this problem?  Cutting down forests (usually for development
    and timber supply).
    • Forested areas such as
    • the Amazon rainforest, the Pacific Northwest, and even the Sahel in Africa
  16. Describe  these types of governments: Representative Democracy,  Absolute Monarchy,
    Dictatorship, Constitutional Monarchy, and Theocracy.
    • Representative
    • Democracy – Citizens elect leaders to represent them in government.  Freedoms are protected. (United States)

    • Absolute
    • Monarchy – A king or queen inherits their power at birth  and rules over their land when their parents
    • die. (Saudi Arabia)

    • Dictatorship
    • – a Dictator takes power and rules with total control. (Cuba)

    • Constitutional
    • Monarchy – Has a king/queen, but is ruled by an elected body of government
    • (United Kingdom)

    • Theocracy –
    • leaders and laws are based on religious teachings  (Israel/Iran)
  17. What is the Columbian Exchange and how has it affected the regions involved?
    Trade between the Americas and Europe/Africa.  Many agricultural products were introduced to the countries involved.  Slavery and new languages were brought to the Americas.
  18. Describe and give examples of each economic activity: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary.
    • Primary – Harvesting of resources (farming)
    • Secondary – Turning resources into products (building a house)
    • Tertiary – Providing a service (teachers)
    • Quaternary – Research (developing the new computer software)
  19. What
    is the Berlin Conference? What effects did it have on Africa
    • A meeting
    • in which European powers divided Africa. 
    • It created borders that have led to conflict and corruption in Africa
    • even to this day.
  20. Describe each of the four spheres: Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere and Biosphere.
    • Lithosphere – all of the land (ground/soil) on the planet
    • Hydrosphere – all of the water on the planet
    • Atmosphere – all of the air on the planet
    • Biosphere – all of the life on the planet

  21. Give examples of how the environment affects where people live, what they eat and what they wear.
    • Most people prefer to live in mild climates.  Those that live in coastal areas east more seafood.  Those that live in cold climates wear heavier clothing.  Those that live in rainy climates carry umbrellas and wear raincoats.
  22. How do the physical features of a country affect the population distribution of its people? 
    • Population is more dense around flat plains and fertile valleys.  Less dense in mountains or deserts.
  23. What is El Nino?  What impact does it have? 
    • El Nino is a reversal in weather patterns due to a shift of water mass in the Pacific Ocean.  It causes dry areas to get more rain, rainy areas to experience drought, and affects fishing in coastal waters off the coast of South America.

  24. List the characteristics of MDC and LDC countries. Give a few examples of each.
    • MDC – will have high per capita GDP, high education, high literacy rate
    • LDC – high birthrate, high deathrate, low electricity usage, high infant mortality
    • MDC examples – USA, Japan, United Kingdome
    • LDC examples – Bangladesh, Somalia, Ethiopia, Ecuador
  25. What is an Ethnic religion? Give a few examples. 
    • A religion that doesn’t seek to convert others.  You need to be born into it.  Hinduism, Judaism.
  26. What is animism?
    • A religion that gives human characteristics to inanimate objects (spirit of the wind, the moon, the trees, the rocks, etc.)  Found in isolated areas that haven’t been converted to major world religions, such as small groups of Native Americans or tribes in the rainforest.
  27. What is a Universalizing religion? Give a few examples. 
    • A religion that seeks to convert people.  Christianity, Islam.
  28. What latitude area do most people in the world live? What hemisphere?  Why?  Middle latitudes, Northern hemisphere. 
    • Because of mild climates, fertile land, and access to fresh water.

  29. What is ethnocentrism and ethno-relativism?
    • Ethnocentrism – believing that your culture/way of doing things is superior.
    • Ethno-relativism -  trying to see things from other people’s viewpoints and accepting  cultural differences as neither better nor worse.
  30. What are the factors that affect climate of a place?
    • Latitude, Air masses, Continental Position, Elevation, Mountain Barriers, Ocean currents, Pressure systems, Storms
  31. Why is Siberia one of the coldest regions in the world?
    • High latitude and no ocean currents to moderate the temperature.

  32. What is diffusion?
    The spreading of culture or ideas from one place to another.
  33. Why do you see Arabic influence in Spain?
    Arabic culture diffused from northern Africa across the Strait of Gibraltar into Spain.
  34. What is the HDI? What factors influence the HDI of a country the most?
    • Human Development Index is a way to sort countries based on the level of development.  Life expectancy, education, and per capita GDP determine a country’s HDI rating.

  35. Describe the following plate movements and list examples of each: Converging, Diverging and Transform.
    • Converging – when tectonic plates collide together and create mountains
    • Diverging – when tectonic plates pull apart, causing rift valleys
    • Transforming – when plates slide along each other, resulting in eathquakes

  36. What is the Equinox and Solstice? List the characteristics of both.
    • Equinox – when the North and South poles are the same distance from the sun, resulting in 12 hours of sunlight and 12 hours of darkness.  (March 20th , September 23rd)
    • Solstice – when the North and South poles are at their greatest angle toward/away from the sun, resulting in constant sunlight/darkness in the Arctic/Antarctic circles.  (June 21st, December 21st)
  37. What are weathering and erosion?  List examples. 
    • Weathering is the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces by wind, water, chemicals, or plants.  Erosion is when small pieces of rock or soil are carried away by wind or water.

  38. Give examples of biomes and their climates?
    • Tropical rainforest – warm and wet climate
    • Tundra – little rain, very cold
    • Deciduous forest – moderate rainfall and warm to cool climate
    • Desert – very little rain, can be hot or cold

  39. What types of storms do you find in the Mid-latitudes? Low latitudes?
    • Mid Latitudes – tornadoes when cold and warm air masses meet
    • Low Latitudes – hurricanes (typhoons) form over warm water
  40. What is global warming and what are the causes?
    • The gradual warming of the planet.  Caused by increasing greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide. 
  41. How have Europeans influenced other regions around the world? 
    • Europeans have been influential in spreading their languages, religions, and concepts of government all over the world. 
  42. What regions are predominantly Muslim? 
    • SW Asia, northern Africa, and Indonesia
  43. What is so unique about Jerusalem? 
    • Multiple religions (Christianity, Islam, and Judaism) all consider the city as holy ground, causing conflict over the years.

  44. What is Nationalism and Patriotism?
    • Nationalism – believing that your country is the best
    • Patriotism – loving your country and being willing to defend it. 
    • Both of these occur most in countries where people share the same beliefs and culture.
  45. What does it mean to speak in a different dialect?
    •   Speaking a variation of a language.  Example:  English is spoken all over the world, but different places will have different words and accents.

  46. Be able to identify different types of bodies of water and landforms: Strait, Isthmus etc.
    • A strait is a narrow body of water separating two landmasses
    • An isthmus is a narrow strip of land dividing two bodies of water
    • An peninsula is a piece of land with water on three sides
    • A plain is a flat area of land
    • An archipelago is a chain of islands
  47. How is China different from other communist countries?
    • China has maintained single-party communist rule in government, but has allowed for reform in the economy that bring it closer to capitalism.

  48. Describe the following organizations: EU, NAFTA, NATO, UN
    • EU – European Union – works to increase economic interdependence by promoting free trade, open immigration, and the establishment of a common currency by its member countries. 
    • NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement – created free trade between Mexico, the U.S., and Canada
    • NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization – Treaty organization for military defense that includes the countries around the northern Atlantic Ocean, including Canada, the US, and many European nations.
    • UN – United Nations – Most countries in the world have joined this organization that attempts to resolve international disputes, promote friendly relations, and improve life for the poor
  49. What is the continental drift theory?
    • The theory that Pangaea was once a giant landmass, and over millions of years, the tectonic plates have drifted to where they are today.
  50. What is Urban Sprawl and what are the negative effects associated with it? 
    • Urban sprawl is when cities grow outward, taking up the surrounding land.  It increases traffic (and pollution) and causes the destruction of farmland and the surrounding wildlife habitat.

  51. Describe the Orographic Effect.
    • A geographic phenomenon where the coastal side of a mountain gets rain, and the leeward side of a mountain forms a rain shadow (desert).  Diagram below.
  52. What helps to regulate the climate of cities located on the coast? 
    • Water holds heat much better than air, so when the air gets cold, areas near large bodies of water stay warmer.
  53. What regions of the world are experiencing lots of emigration?   
    • People are constantly migrating from poorer areas of the world to wealthier areas of the world.
  54. What is the population movement trend in the United States
    The population of the US is shifting from the north and east to the south and the west, thanks to cheaper land and developments in transportation and air conditioning. 
  55. What is Famine? List some examples. 
    • Famine is widespread starvation due to crop failure.  An example of famine would be when the potato crop failed in Ireland, causing massive starvation and forcing millions of Irish to emigrate for a better opportunity at life elsewhere
  56. What is the Demographic Transition Model? Describe each stage. 
    • The DTM shows the process that ALL countries go through as they become a developed nation.  In stage 1, the nation is less developed and has a high birth and deathrate.  In state 2, a country begins to develop, and the death rate drops due to an increase in healthcare and sanitation.  The birthrate stays high and population soars.  In stage 3, a country has continued development and the birthrate falls to match the death rate.  In stage 4, the developed nation has a low birthrate and death rate.  The next step (not shown in the chart) is stage 5 and occurs as highly developed nations begin to drop in population.