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What is Pathophysiology?
The study of the structural and functional changes in CELLS, TISSUES, & ORGANS of the body that are caused by disease.
The disease process (the enemy) comes into the body (cell) and changes or damages the cell and as a result it can not function properly.
What is this called?
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AKA THE ENEMY
What is ETIOLOGY?
- * The cause of the disease. (book defn)
- * This is what makes you get sick.
- ** What is CAUSING the disease**
Ex. The etiology of most urinary tract infections is because of bacteria
What is MANIFESTATIONS?
This is how the disease presents itself.
Ex. The manifestation of a urinary tract would be pain, burning, urinary retention etc.
What is COMPLICATIONS?
This is what can go wrong from the disease process. Something that is unexpected and usually dangerous.
Ex. A complications for a urinary tract infection would be kidney failure.
What is PROGNOSIS:
A prediction of the probable course and outcome of a disease.
The rate of incidence of a disease.
- Ex. Early surgery may therefore
- reduce the morbidity or rate of disease
- associated with frequent seizures.
The rate of death.
Ex. The ???? of the black plague was 100% **(
Mortality = the rate of death
Remember that humans are MORTAL meaning we die
What is diagnosis?
identifying or determining the cause of a disease or injury through evaluation of patient history
Evaluation process used to determine a diagnosis
Medical treatment of disease; the art or science of healing.
What is PATHOGENESIS?
the production and development of disease
What are the 7 MECHANISMS of disease?
(meaning what are the different factors that cause disease?)
Remember ETIOLOGY means what causes disease
- 1. Genetics (passed via chromosomes)
- 2. Biological (ex. bacteria and viruses)
- 3. Chemical agent (nicotine from smoking)
- 4. Autoimmunity (own immune system attaching itself Ex. MS or chrones)
- 5. Malnutrion
- 6. Inflammation (arthritis or asthma)
- 7. Necrosis (tissue death)
What are the 5 contributing factors of disease?
- 1. age
- 2. gender
- 3. lifestyle
- 4. Stress
- 5. Environment
if you have a mosquito. What type of infections transmission would this fall under?
remember to tell the difference between VECTOREBORNE or VEHICLE is...
VectoreBORNE - is biological meaning it is alive. (eg. insects)
Vehicle - is non-moving objects - water, milk, meat etc.)
What are the 5 different types infectious agents also know as PATHOGENS?
- 1. Prions
- 2. Parasites
- 3. Fungus
- 4. Bacteria
- 5. Viruses
WHAT ARE PRIONS?
It is an infectious protein particle.
A prion is neither bacterial, fungal nor viral and contains no genetic material.
Ex. Prions are responsible for degenerative brain diseases, including mad cow
Which out of the five infectious agents contain zero genetic material (DNA OR RNA)
YOU GOT IT
What are VIRUSES?
- are pathogens (disease causing agents)that are incapable of replication outside living cells.
- (EX. HIV can not live on a toilet seat)
* The genetic information inside the viruses is either DNA or RNA. (never both!!)
What are the 3 different examples of a viruses?
- 1. LATENT = A nonactive virus which is in a dormant state within a cell. (Ex. Herpes can be Latent)
- 2. INFLUENZA = is a human infection that causes respiratory illness.
- 3. HIV = is retrovirus that has a viral enzyme, reverse transcriptase, to translate viral RNA into the hosts DNA
What is BACTERIA?
- * It is am infectious agent that can grow on its and does not require a host.
- * Bacteria is a PROKARYOTES (meaning they don't have an organized nucleus (floating all around))
- *bacteria contains both RNA and DNA which means they can replicate very quickly
- * bacteria has a special cell wall called peptidoglycan and allows the cell to survive and hard to kill.
What is FUNGI?
Fungi is a EUKARYOTIC (organized nucleus) saprophytes (organism that feeds off of dead organic materials like food or skin cells like athletes foot)
What are the 2 different groups of FUNGI?
1. Mold - which are powdery looking that grow on foods
2. Yeast - which is smooth, waxy & creamy in texture and usually grown on humans
What is a PARASITES?
an organism that lives in or on another organism
What are the 3 type of parasites?
- 1. Helminths
- 2. Arthropods
- 3. Protozoa
What is Helminths parasite?
**Hint - seen in developing countries
Helminths is a worm like parasite.
Ex. Tapeworm - seen mostly in developing countries
What is Arthropods parasite?
**Hint - think about what is vectorBORNE. This will help you know what an arthropod parasite is.
Arthropods are external parasites because they only effect the external part of the body.
(ex. ticks, lice, mites and mosquitoes)
What is a Protozoa parasite?
* Protozoa are microscopic, one-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic in nature.
- * Protozoa can cause:
- 1. Malaria - life treating blood disease if bitten by a mosquito
- 2. Dysentery - infection of the intestines resulting in severe diarrhea
Name the 4 different portals of entry for pathogens (infectious agents).
- 1. Ingestion- oral or GI tract (eat it)
- 2. Inhalation- into respiratory tract (breath in)
- 3. Penetration- invasive devices (catheter, IV)
- 4. Direct Contact- person to person (sex, birth)
What are the 2 different types of classifications of infection?
- 1. Community acquired - are outside the hospital
- 2. Nosocomial - infection acquired from the hopsital
What is VIRULENCE?
The ability of an infectious microbe to cause disease
The pathogen (infectious agent) strength to cause damage
What does Infectious agent, and pathogen have in common?
- They are both the same. They are the enemy.
What would you call the strength of a pathogen aka the enemy aka the GERM
What are the categories of infections symptoms?
1. Specific - the organ involved is displaying the symptoms. (Ex. If you have H1N1 your LUNGS would display difficulty breathing etc.
2. NON-Specific - are general symptoms. (EX. if you have a fever it could be b/c of ANY reason - there go NON-SPECIFIC
What are the 5 courses of disease? OR another way the teacher can ask this question is:
What are the FIVE stages of infection
- 1. Incubation period
- 2. Prodromal stage
- 3. Acute Stage
- 4. Convalescent period
- 5. Resolution
Describe the INCUBATION PERIOD regarding the course of a disease?
This is when the pathogen (the germ) begins active replication withOUT producing symptoms.
often the incubation period is determined by how healthy the individual is. If they are not healthy the incubation period will be short.
Describe the PRODROMAL STAGE regarding the course of a disease
This occurs with the FIRST appearance of symptoms which are NON-specific (ie. fever, tired, not feeling well)
often the length of this stage is different for each person
Describe the ACUTE STAGE regarding the course of a disease
This occurs when the person experiences the maximum impact of the infection. The person is having SPECIFIC symptoms which indicates the area of infection (what part of the body is involved)
ie/ Respiratory infection involves SPECIFIC symptoms such as : short of breath, coughing, congestion
Describe the CONVALESCENT STAGE regarding the course of a disease
This occurs when the person begins to feel better, the symptoms are starting to go away and the infection is contained. The body has begun to repair itself and destroy the pathogen.
Often the length of this stage is determined by the type of pathogen and the person's overall health
Describe the RESOLUTION STAGE regarding the course of a disease
This happens when there are no more symptoms of infection. Total elimination of the pathogen.
Describe what a FEVER is?
When the internal body temperature is above 37.5 C
How does a FEVER develop?
The body's cells or the pathogen release PYROGENS (chemicals) which tell the body to increase the temperature and the result is NON-specific symptoms (fever, tired, not feeling well)
Name the 4 STAGES of FEVER
- 1. PRODROME
- 2. CHILL
- 3. FLUSH
- 4. DEFERVESCENCE
Describe the PRODROME STAGE regarding fever
The person begins to feel the temperature rising, and feels unwell, achy and tired. These are NON-specific symptoms
Describe the CHILL STAGE regarding fever
The person begins to feel uncomfortable from a chill. They may start shivering and develop piloerection (goose bumps). Once the body's temperature has reached it's desired point the person will stop feeling chilled.
* The CHILL STAGE starts with the beginning of chills and ends when the chills disappear
Describe the FLUSH STAGE regarding fever
This happens when the skin becomes red and warm. The blood vessels in the skin dilate (vasodialation) and allow more blood to rise to the skin and release the heat
Describe the DEFERVESCENCE STAGE regarding fever
The happens when the person becomes sweaty and there is a drop in body temperature