Geog 111 Final
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Sequoia sempervirens - Coast Redwood
Sequoiadendron giganteum - Giant Sequoias
Pinus longaeva - Bristle Cone Pines: 4,700 years old.
- study of tree rings; can tell you
- 1) tree age
- 2) tree dynamic (what happened in that area)
- 3) precipitation
- 4) fire history
- 5) archeology
Age of trees, how old a forest is (measuring establishment)
- -Match rings from the live core and the dead core and count backwards on the dead core to get information on past precipitation (10,000 years of precipitation.
- -Amount of moisture/ water.
- -Quantity of water falling to earth.
- -Need entire tree slab to measure fire.
- -Cut whole tree down and look for evidence of fire or scathing.
- -Is fire natural or not?
- -how frequent fires are.
Gold, Carbon, and isotopes
Why no annual rings in the tropics?
wet all year round - no dry season
number of species per unit area
the array of plant species that occurs in a community or region
density, basal area, height etc.
common, uncommon, rare
number of stems/trees
- how much room does each tree take up (on the ground), what is the area of it's trunk
- -huge for forest density
- -Diameter at Breast Height,
- -used to measure basal area and density of forest
how tall is it? in meters
Is it a tree, shrub, or liana.
Natural and Cultural History
Methods for studying trees and shrubs.
Pros and Cons of Plots/Quadrats
- 1. Pros:
- -permanent plot you can measure year after year,
- -great for one vegetation type,
- -standard and repeatable
- 2. Cons
- -may be too small a plot if you're surveying a huge area
- -lots of work
Plots or Quadrats
- 1. establish one hectare plot.
- 2. Within that plot create nested subplots of 10x10m sections
- 3. measure the distance from the center to each tree, gives the exact location of each tree within the plot
- 4. then measure the DBH for every tree larger than specified diameter
Pros and cons of transects
- 1. PROS:
- -fast sample of vegetation
- -can take samples from many different places
- 2. CONS:
- -Not permanent plots
Transects or Belt Transects
- -lay a 50m measure through a forest and measure everything 1m to the left and 1m to the right of the tape.
- -Usually you take 10 transects with 10meters between each one.
- -Geographical approach
Why was there a government land grab in 1890s?
to protect the watershed, particularly in the west
What is the difference between a National Park and a National forest? (3)
- 1. can't cut trees in national park
- 2. can't hunt in a national park
- 3. can't use national parks as grazing land
- 4. National Park: Dept of the Interior
- 5. National Forest: U.S Dept of Agriculutre
Woodland types of California (name type, location and species)
- 1. Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii)
- -Sierra Neveda
- 2. Valley Oak (Quercus lobata)
- 3. Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana)
- 4. Engelmann Oak (Quercus engelmannii)
- 5. Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia)
- 6. Interior Live Oak (Quecus wislizeni)
- 7. Canyon Live Oak (Quercus chrysolepis)
- 8. California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii)
Forest types of California (name type, location and species)
- 1. Northern Riparian Forest
- -Alaska to northern california
- -Black cottonwood
- 2. Subalpine Forest
- -subalpine fire
- 3. Redwood Forest
- -northern, central calfornia
- -redwood sequoia
- 4. Closed-Cone Pine forest
- -coast california
- -torrey pine
- 5. Oak-Pine Woodland
- -western calfornia, sierra nevadas
- -coast live oak, california buckeye
- 6. Montane Fir Forest
- -western sierra nevadas
- -white fir
1891 Forest reserve act
- Federal government set aside public land all over the US, particularly in the west
- -to protect watershed
1960 Multiple Use and Sustained Use act
- all national forests have to
- 1. outdoor recreation
- 2. range lands - grazing
- 3. timber - cut trees down for wood
- 4. watershed protection
- 5. wildlife and fish habitat
- 1. soil erosion- it washes into streams
- 2. water runoff - effects salmon runs
- 3. one or two speices planting - no biodiversity
- 4. all trees the same age - same height, nothing in understory - cuts biodiversity
- 5. decline in species overall
- 6. herbicide runs into water sources
go into an area and cut down all the trees, sell it for timber
Why did the National Forest Service lose money, how much each year under Reagan?
- -Reagan put James Walts in office and Walts wanted to clear cut all forests for private use.
- -Sold lots of timber land and lost $1.3 billion a year cutting down Forests.
- -Lost the money due to Roads and Restoration which were expensive.
- -Reagan did increase wilderness areas by 10% as a way to redeem himself.
Current Issues in Forest Ecosystems in the US
- 1. Exotic introduction
- 2. Water quality
- 3. Logging
- 4. Fire management
- cutting trees for sale of timber
- -selective or clearcutting
Why is redwood a good timber tree
- 1. Resistant to fire
- 2. Resistant to decay
- -cant be eaten by insects
- 3. Beauty
- 4. Fast growing
- 5. Large
Problems of suppressing fire in the West
- -let understory grow a lot...
- -now we have lots of firs between pines
- -no fire to open new seeds
Choices to restore forest
- 1) Reduce fuel load (fuel load = dead plants) by re-introducing fire and make mosaics again. (mosaics = small fires that occur as mosaics).
- -Problems: a) Can get out of control b) air quality (have to make sure it is a clean day). 2) Mechanical removal: selectively log small trees and some big ones which creates an open canopy like before the Europeans. (re-introduces ground burning.)
- -Problems: a) cut huge trees down than leave one tree in the middle b) reduce review period of the public to 30 days (not enough time)
- 3) Do nothing: if we do nothing it is going to get dryer and hotter and get big fire
areas without roads
2001, the Roadless Area Conservation Rule: Why overturned?
- -prohibitions on road construction, road reconstruction, and timber harvesting on 58.5 million acres of inventoried roadless areas on National Forest System lands
- -Bush wanted states to decide
How miles of highway in US
How many miles of logging roads?
Tongass: Why Cool, Problem, Future
- -Southeast Alaska
- -Largest National forest in the United States
- -Problem: logging old-growth forest, road building, privatizaton
- -Future: tourism, sustained timber harvest of 50% young growth
species richness: boreal forest
3 per hectare
species richness: temperate rainforest
12 per hectare
species richness: temperate deciduous forest
36 per hectare species richness
species richness: tropical rainforest
- -300 per hectare
- -occur in Amazon Basin, Congo Basin, and Southeast Asia
species richness: cloud forest
- -200 per hectare
- -occur where there are mountain ranges in the tropics (Andes, Central America, Volcanoes in Africa, Southeast Asia)
species richness: tropical dry forest
- -75 per hectare
- -Occurs in due fluctuation of the ITCZ from N. hemisphere and S. hemisphere (Hawaii)
species richness: mangroves
3 per hectare
Coast Live Oak Uses
acorn subsistence for native Americans
asphyxiates fish when thrown into a stream, so the fish float to the surface
California Sycamore Uses
Laurel Sumac Uses
Temperate Forests: where, climate, species richness, fire
Boreal Forests: where, climate, species richness, fire
- -where: slim band northern hemisphere (50N)
- -climate: cold
- -species richness: 3, smaller trees in the poles, larger trees in CA-
- fire: yes
Temperate Rainforest Forests: where, climate, species richness, fire
- -where: tongs forest in alaska, north coast CA, norway, japan, southern new zealand
- -climate: lots of rain
- -richness: 12/ha
- -fire: yes
Temperate Deciduous Forests: where, climate, species richness, fire
- -where: east coast, china
- -climate:very cold to warmer
- -richness: 36
- -fire: no
Meditterean Forests: where, climate, species richness, fire
- -where: CA, Europe, South Africa, SW Australia, Chile
- -climate: wet winter, dry summer
- - fire: yes
- -richness: 4
Tropical Rain Forests: where, climate, species richness, fire
- where: amazon basin, congo basin, SE asia
- -climate: lots of rain, warm
- - fire: no
- -richness: 300
Cloud Forests: where, climate, species richness, fire
- -where: anywhere where there are mountains in the tropics (andes, africa, south east asia)
- -climate: very wet and cloudy
- -fire: nospecies
- -richness: 200
Tropical Dry Forests: where, climate, species richness, fire
- -where: ICTZ borders (where dry land) and back of mountain ranges
- -climate: dryer (wet season)
- -fire: no
- -richness: 75
Mangroves: where, climate, species richness, fire
Species Packing in the Tropics
You can have 300 species in one area, but each species is very rare so there is never one dominating species.
A forest along the river, generally made of oaks and willows
Worlds Most Endangered Forest
Tropical Dry Forest
How to find most endangered forest
- 1) current extent of forest
- 2) Areas Protected
- 3) Plot Data and species list
- 4) Level of Endemism
- 5) Levels of Endangerment.
- -USE GIS to compare
- -Places with exceptionally high diversity and endemism.
- -They are also under an exceptional degree of threat from humans.
- -ex: Mesoamerica, Caribbean, Andes, Savannah, Atlantic Forests of Brazil, Mediterranean basin, NE Asia, New Zealand, Mediterranean of Australia, New Caledonia
GIS and Remote Sensing
- 1. GIS (geographic Information system): point line an areal data --> attributes used to analyze.
- 2. Remote Sensing (uses satelite and is pixal and grid based)
Why is New Caledonia Unique?
-New Caledonia is an island that broke off Australia 46 million years ago and kept plants from Australia from the time it broke off.
Why are Hawaiian Plants Threatened?
- It takes one plant 18,000 years to reach the island where it evolves, but loses many of its defenses.
- 1. Plant evolves in isolation
- -not exposed to humans, fire, diseases
- 2. Lost defenses
where is the the most endangered forest?
Hawaii Tropical dry forest
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