Pinus longaeva - Bristle Cone Pines: 4,700 years old.
study of tree rings; can tell you
1) tree age
2) tree dynamic (what happened in that area)
4) fire history
Age of trees, how old a forest is (measuring establishment)
-Match rings from the live core and the dead core and count backwards on the dead core to get information on past precipitation (10,000 years of precipitation.
-Amount of moisture/ water.
-Quantity of water falling to earth.
-Need entire tree slab to measure fire.
-Cut whole tree down and look for evidence of fire or scathing.
-Is fire natural or not?
-how frequent fires are.
Gold, Carbon, and isotopes
Why no annual rings in the tropics?
wet all year round - no dry season
number of species per unit area
the array of plant species that occurs in a community or region
density, basal area, height etc.
common, uncommon, rare
number of stems/trees
how much room does each tree take up (on the ground), what is the area of it's trunk
-huge for forest density
-Diameter at Breast Height,
-used to measure basal area and density of forest
how tall is it? in meters
Is it a tree, shrub, or liana.
Natural and Cultural History
Methods for studying trees and shrubs.
Pros and Cons of Plots/Quadrats
-permanent plot you can measure year after year,
-great for one vegetation type,
-standard and repeatable
-may be too small a plot if you're surveying a huge area
-lots of work
Plots or Quadrats
1. establish one hectare plot.
2. Within that plot create nested subplots of 10x10m sections
3. measure the distance from the center to each tree, gives the exact location of each tree within the plot
4. then measure the DBH for every tree larger than specified diameter
Pros and cons of transects
-fast sample of vegetation
-can take samples from many different places
-Not permanent plots
Transects or Belt Transects
-lay a 50m measure through a forest and measure everything 1m to the left and 1m to the right of the tape.
-Usually you take 10 transects with 10meters between each one.
Why was there a government land grab in 1890s?
to protect the watershed, particularly in the west
What is the difference between a National Park and a National forest? (3)
1. can't cut trees in national park
2. can't hunt in a national park
3. can't use national parks as grazing land
4. National Park: Dept of the Interior
5. National Forest: U.S Dept of Agriculutre
Woodland types of California (name type, location and species)
1. Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii)
2. Valley Oak (Quercus lobata)
3. Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana)
4. Engelmann Oak (Quercus engelmannii)
5. Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia)
6. Interior Live Oak (Quecus wislizeni)
7. Canyon Live Oak (Quercus chrysolepis)
8. California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii)
Forest types of California (name type, location and species)
1. Northern Riparian Forest
-Alaska to northern california
2. Subalpine Forest
3. Redwood Forest
-northern, central calfornia
4. Closed-Cone Pine forest
5. Oak-Pine Woodland
-western calfornia, sierra nevadas
-coast live oak, california buckeye
6. Montane Fir Forest
-western sierra nevadas
1891 Forest reserve act
Federal government set aside public land all over the US, particularly in the west
-to protect watershed
1960 Multiple Use and Sustained Use act
all national forests have to
1. outdoor recreation
2. range lands - grazing
3. timber - cut trees down for wood
4. watershed protection
5. wildlife and fish habitat
1. soil erosion- it washes into streams
2. water runoff - effects salmon runs
3. one or two speices planting - no biodiversity
4. all trees the same age - same height, nothing in understory - cuts biodiversity
5. decline in species overall
6. herbicide runs into water sources
go into an area and cut down all the trees, sell it for timber
Why did the National Forest Service lose money, how much each year under Reagan?
-Reagan put James Walts in office and Walts wanted to clear cut all forests for private use.
-Sold lots of timber land and lost $1.3 billion a year cutting down Forests.
-Lost the money due to Roads and Restoration which were expensive.
-Reagan did increase wilderness areas by 10% as a way to redeem himself.
Current Issues in Forest Ecosystems in the US
1. Exotic introduction
2. Water quality
4. Fire management
cutting trees for sale of timber
-selective or clearcutting
Why is redwood a good timber tree
1. Resistant to fire
2. Resistant to decay
-cant be eaten by insects
4. Fast growing
Problems of suppressing fire in the West
-let understory grow a lot...
-now we have lots of firs between pines
-no fire to open new seeds
Choices to restore forest
1) Reduce fuel load (fuel load = dead plants) by re-introducing fire and make mosaics again. (mosaics = small fires that occur as mosaics).
-Problems: a) Can get out of control b) air quality (have to make sure it is a clean day). 2) Mechanical removal: selectively log small trees and some big ones which creates an open canopy like before the Europeans. (re-introduces ground burning.)
-Problems: a) cut huge trees down than leave one tree in the middle b) reduce review period of the public to 30 days (not enough time)
3) Do nothing: if we do nothing it is going to get dryer and hotter and get big fire
areas without roads
2001, the Roadless Area Conservation Rule: Why overturned?
-prohibitions on road construction, road reconstruction, and timber harvesting on 58.5 million acres of inventoried roadless areas on National Forest System lands