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Where are the boundries for the mediastinum? Superior? Inferior? Lateral? Anterior? Posterior?
- Superior: Thoracic inlet
- Inferior: Thoracic (diaphragm and abdominal inlet)
- Posterior: The vertebral column
- Anterior: Sternum
- Lateral: Mediastinal pleura
What are the subdivisions of the mediastinum?
What area is the anterior mediastinum
Anterior: The region anterior to the pericardial sac and posterior to the sternum.
What area is the Posterior mediastinum? Content?
- The region posterior to the pericardial sac and anterio to the thoracic vertebrae
- Esophagus, Lower end of trachea, Descending Aorta and it's branches, Azygos venous system (joins with the inferior vena cava), Thoracic duct, Thoracic part of sympathetic trunk
What is the content of the superior mediastinum?
Thymus, great veins, arch of the aorta and it's 3 branches, parts of the trachea nd esophogus, vagus and phrenic nerves, thoracic ducts
What is the content of the middle mediastinum?
pericardial sac, hears, great arteries, main bronchi and phrenic nerve.
How many layers of the pericardium, what are their names? What does it do?
Two layers, serous and fibrous. It encloses the heart and roots of the greater vessels.
Which layer is the fibrous pericardium? What ligaments fuse it to the diaphragm and sternum? What does it do? Which vessels peirce the fibrous pericardium?
It is the dense outside layer. It is fused by the stenopericardial ligaments. It protects the heart and limits it's distension ( so it can't over inflate). The inferior vena cava and the pulmonary veins.
What are the two layers of the serous pericardium? What lies between them?
- The parietal (lines fibrous pericardium) and the visceral (lines the heart).
- The pericardial cavity which contains fluid to reduce friction across surfaces when movement occurs.
What are the two pericardial sinuses? Where are they?
- The transverse (anterior to the superior vena cava and posterior to the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk) the oblique (bounded on right by the inferior vena cava nad pulmanry veins on on the left by the pulmonary trunk)