Diseases of the Respiratory Tract and the Skin

Card Set Information

Author:
sinopa
ID:
276239
Filename:
Diseases of the Respiratory Tract and the Skin
Updated:
2014-06-06 03:35:48
Tags:
cpp cal poly pomona wallace animal health science clinical pathology
Folders:
AHS 305L
Description:
Spring 2014 clinical pathology wallace
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user sinopa on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Diagnosis of respiratory tract
    • history
    • physical exam
    • CBC and blood chemistries
    • thoracic radiographs - 2 or 3 views
    • viral tests
    • cytology of exudates
    • transtracheal wash/bronchial lavage with culture and sensitivities
    • bronchoscopy
  2. What is Feline Asthma and Bronchitis
    • inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles
    • siamese  are overrepresented
  3. signs of feline asthma and bronchitis
    • coughing, 
    • sneezing,
    • labored breathing,
    • wheezing,
    • can be episodic
  4. risk factors of feline asthma and bronchitis
    • cigarette smoke,
    • dusty cat litter,
    • hair sprays,
    • air fresheners
  5. Diagnosis of feline asthma and bronchitis
    • eosinophilia, 
    • bronchial wall thickening (radiographs),
    • transoral tracheal wash
    • bronchoalveolar lavage
  6. treatment of feline asthma and bronchitis
    • oxygen if an emergency,
    • bronchodilators,
    • corticosteroids
  7. Feline Asthma and Bronchitis
  8. what is Brachycephalic airway syndrome
    partial upper airway obstruction
  9. what can cause brachycephalic airway syndrome
    • stenotic nares
    • elongated soft palate
    • everted laryngeal saccules
    • laryngeal collapse
    • +/- hypoplastic trachea
  10. what breeds are susceptible to brachycephalic airway syndrome
    • english bulldogs
    • french bulldogs
    • pug
    • boston terrier
    • persian cats
    • himalayan cats
  11. signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome
    • noisy breathing,
    • panting,
    • coughing,
    • gagging,
    • difficulty eating and swallowing,
    • ptyalism,
    • regurgitation and vomiting
  12. risk factors of brachycephalic airway syndrome
    • obesity
    • excitement +/- warm or humid weather
    • exercise
    • sedation
    • respiratory infections
  13. diagnosis of brachycephalic airway syndrome
    • physical signs
    • radiographs
  14. treatment of brachycephalic airway syndrome
    • diet
    • avoidance of risk factors
    • correction of stenotic nares
    • resection of elongated soft palate
    • sacculectomy
  15. what is pneumonia
    inflammation in the lungs
  16. causes of pneumonia
    • inhalation of regurgitated ingesta or vomitus, 
    • bacterial or fungal
    • allergic,
    • interstitial
  17. signs of pneumonia
    • cough, 
    • labored breathing,
    • tachypnea,
    • nasal discharge,
    • exercise intolerance,
    • anorexia, weight loss,
    • lethargy,
    • fever,
    • increased bronchial sounds,
    • crackles and wheezes
  18. risk factors of pneumonia
    • pharyngeal or esophageal abnormalities,
    • force feeding,
    • syringe feeding,
    • any disease or drugs that suppress the immune system,
    • young, aged animals
  19. diagnosis of pneumonia
    • thoracic radiographs 2-3 views,
    • inflammatory leukogram (neutrophilic leukocytosis),
    • transtracheal/endotracheal washing 
    • bronchoalveolar lavage with cytology and culture with sensitivities
  20. treatment of pneumonia
    • oxygen if needed,
    • IV fluids,
    • antibiotics,
    • saline nebulization 
    • coupage (rhythmic beating of the chest)
  21. Aspiration penumonia
  22. fungal pneumonia
  23. what is tracheal collapse
    Dynamic reduction in the luminal diameter – cervical trachea, intrathoracic trachea or both
  24. Predispositions to tracheal collapse
    • Middle-aged to elderly dogs –
    • Miniature poodles,
    • Yorkshire terriers,
    • Chihuahuas,
    • Pomeranians,
    • toy breeds
  25. causes of tracheal collapse
    • unknown; 
    • congenital,
    • nutritional,
    • familial defects of chondrogenesis of tracheal rings suspected
  26. risk factors of tracheal collapse
    • obesity, 
    • airway infection or inflammation,
    • endotracheal intubation,
    • worsened by heat, humidity, excitement
  27. signs of tracheal collapse
    • dry honking cough,
    • retching,
    • tachypnea,
    • exercise intolerance,
    • respiratory distress, 
    • tracheal sensitivity
  28. diagnosis of tracheal collapse
    may see collapse on radiographs, fluoroscopy
  29. treatment of tracheal collapse
    • oxygen if needed,
    • sedation and cough suppression,
    • WEIGHT LOSS,
    • bronchodilators, 
    • corticosteroids,
    • Diphenoxylate (Lomotil)
  30. What is Rhinitis/Sinusitis
    Inflammation of the nasal epithelium and/or paranasal sinuses
  31. Cats & Rhinitis/Sinusitis
    chronic rhinosinusitis common in brachycephalic breeds
  32. Dogs & Rhinitis/Sinusitis
    • neoplasia, 
    • inflammatory rhinitis,
    • fungal infection (Aspergillosis),
    • dolichocephalic breeds
  33. causes of rhinitis/sinusitis
    • fungal, viral, or bacterial,
    • foreign body,
    • tumor,
    • tooth root infection,
    • pneumonia, 
    • nasopharyngeal polyps,
    • cleft palate
  34. diagnosis of rhinitis/sinusitis
    • skull radiographs,
    • dental radiographs,
    • CT/MRI,
    • nasal swabs (Cryptococcus),
    • culture exudate, 
    • endoscopy with biopsy
  35. treatment of rhinitis/sinusitis
    • depends on etiology,
    • antibiotics,
    • antifungals,
    • anti-inflammatories,
    • steroids,
    • antihistamines,
    • L-lysine
  36. what is pneumothorax
    Air accumulated in the pleural space – traumatic or spontaneous
  37. causes of pneumothorax
    • history of recent trauma,
    • anesthesia and intubation,
    • overinflation of entdotracheal cuff,
    • thoracocentesis,
    • jugular venipuncture,
    • pulmonary disease,
    • migrating grass awn,
    • bullae
  38. diagnosis of pneumothorax
    thoracic radiographs (lateral view)
  39. treatment of pneumothorax
    • oxygen until stabilized
    • thoracocentesis to remove air
    • place chest
    • tube if indicated
    • pain medication if traumatic
    • strict rest
  40. Diagnosis of skin diseases
    • Physical – characteristic lesions
    • Skin scraping – parasites
    • Cytology
    • Wood’s light – Microsporum canis
    • Fungal culture – DTM media
    • Culture and sensitivity
    • Fine needle aspirate - cells
    • Biopsy - tissue
    • Immunohistology – uses
    • special stains and techniques
    • Test for systemic disease
    • Elimination diet
    • Immune system evaluation
  41. Macule
    A circumscribed, flat spot up to 1 cm. in size, characterized by a change in color
  42. Patch
    A macule over 1 cm. in size
  43. Papule
    A small, solid elevation of the skin up to 1 cm. in diameter
  44. Plaque
    A larger, flat-topped elevation formed by the extension or coalition of papules
  45. Purpura
    A type of macule caused by bleeding into the skin (reddish color)
  46. Nodule
    A small, circumscribed, solid elevation greater than 1 cm. in diameter that usually extends into the deeper layers of the skin
  47. Tumor
    A neoplastic enlargement that may involve any structure of the skin or subcutaneous tissue
  48. Cyst
    An epithelium-lined cavity containing fluid or a solid material, smooth, well-circumscribed fluctuant-to-solid mass
  49. pustule
    A small circumscribed elevation of the skin filled with purulent exudate that is usually intraepidermal or follicular in location
  50. abscess
    A demarcated fluctuant lesion resulting from dermal or subcutaneous accumulation of purulent exudate
  51. wheal
    A sharply circumscribed, raised, flat-topped lesion consisting of edema that appears and disappears within minutes or hours, lesion of urticaria (hives)
  52. angioedema
    A similar condition to wheals except the edema is deeper resulting in diffuse swelling
  53. vesicle
    A sharply circumscribed elevation of the skin filled with clear fluid, up to 1 cm. in diameter and are usually intraepidermal or subepidermal in location
  54. bulla
    A vesicle greater than 1 cm. in diameter
  55. crusting
    dried exudate, scab
  56. scaling
    dry, thin flake of skin
  57. erosion
    superficial destruction of skin
  58. ulceration
    sore on skin
  59. epidermal collarettes
    rim around a lesion on the skin
  60. pruritus
    itchiness of the skin
  61. excoriations
    skin is worn off
  62. lichenification
    leathery skin
  63. comedones
    black heads
  64. hypopigmentation
    is the loss of skin color
  65. hyperpigmentation
    increase in skin color
  66. urticaria
    hives
  67. what is pyoderma
    bacterial infection of the skin
  68. what is pyoderma characterized by
    • characterized by depth:
    • superficial
    • deep
    • furunculosis
  69. etiologic agents of pyoderma
    • Staph. pseudointermedius
    • Pasturella multocida
    • E. coli
    • Proteus spp.
    • Pseudomonas spp.
  70. Charcteristics of superficial pyoderma
    • pustules
    • erythema
    • some crusting
    • commonly on the ventral abdomen and axilla
  71. treatment of superficial pyoderma
    • antibacterial shampoos
    • +/- systemic antibiotics
    • antibacterial cream
    • most are secondary to other conditions
  72. acute moist pyotraumatic dermatitis
    "hot spot"
  73. what are hot spots caused by
    • self-induced trauma
    • secondary bacterial infection
  74. treatment of hot spots
    • antibiotics
    • clip hair and clean with antiseptic
    • topical medication
    • e-collar
    • corticosteroids
  75. What is skin fold pyoderma
    • overgrowth of bacteria in skin folds
    • occurs in breeds with redundant tissue that creates a moist envrionment for bacteria
    • can be chronic
  76. where is skin fold pyoderma seen
    • lips
    • nasal folds
    • vulvar folds (obesity, infantile vulva)
    • tail (corkscrew tail)
  77. treatment for skin fold pyoderma
    • same as superficial pyoderma:
    • Antibacterial shampoos
    • +/- Systemic antibiotics
    • Antibacterial cream
    • Most are secondary to other conditions
    • in addition to:
    • +/- surgery to remove skin folds
  78. signs/symptoms of feline acne
    • comedones and pustules
    • painful
    • may be febrile
  79. treatment of feline acne
    • antibiotics
    • antiseptic cream - benzoyl perioxide, mupirocin
    • corticosteroids
    • cyclosporine (atopica)
    • change food dish and keep clean
    • change diet - canned?
  80. What is Miliary Dermatitis?
    • secondary disease
    • usually has an allergic component
    • flea allergy dermatitis in cats
  81. treatment for miliary dermatitis
    • treat allergic compnent: food, atopic dermatitis
    • antibiotics
    • corticosteroids
    • cyclosporine (atopica)
    • flea control
  82. what is deep pyoderma
    infections of the subcutaneous tissues that spreads along the planes of the tissues.
  83. signs of deep pyoderma
    • febrile
    • pruritis
    • may be anorexic
  84. treatment of deep pyoderma
    long term antibiotics
  85. what is puppy strangles? (juvenile cellulitis)
    • not an infection
    • immune disease seen in puppies 3wks - 4 months
    • pet may die if unresolved
  86. clinical signs of puppy strangles (juvenile cellulitis)
    • submandibular lymph node swelling
    • alopecia
    • +/- secondary pyoderma
  87. treatment for puppy strangles (juvenile cellulitis)
    • corticosteroids
    • +/- antibiotics for secondary problems

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview